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      The efficacy of Advantix ® to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks Translated title: Efficacité d’Advantix ® pour prévenir la transmission d’ Ehrlichia canis aux chiens par les tiques Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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          The capacity of a topical combination of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix ®) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of six dogs. One group served as controls, whereas the other group was treated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and Day 28 post acaricidal treatment. The adult R. sanguineus ticks were released into the individual kennels of the dogs to simulate natural tick exposure. In situ tick counts were conducted on Day 9, 16 and 23 and any remaining ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of the acaricidal treatment against R. sanguineus ranged between 96.1% and 98.9% at 48 h post-application and lasted up to 4 weeks. Four out of six control dogs became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by the presence of specific E. canis antibodies and the detection by PCR of E. canis DNA in blood samples. These dogs became thrombocytopenic and displayed fever and were consecutively rescue-treated by doxycycline. None of the six treated dogs became infected with E. canis, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of E. canis DNA in blood samples. Advantix ® prevented transmission of E. canis and provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiosis for 4 weeks post acaricidal treatment.

          Translated abstract

          La capacité d’une association locale d’imidaclopride et perméthrine (Advantix ®) pour prévenir la transmission d’Ehrlichia canis a été étudiée dans deux groupes de six chiens. Un groupe a servi de témoin, tandis que l’autre groupe a été traité. Tous les chiens ont été exposés à des tiques Rhipicephalus sanguineus infectées par E. canis aux jours 7, 14, 21 et 28 jours après traitement acaricide. Les R. sanguineus adultes ont été lâchés dans les niches individuelles des chiens pour simuler une exposition naturelles aux tiques. Des comptages de tiques in situ ont été menés aux jours 9, 16 et 23 et les tiques restantes ont été comptées et enlevées au jour 30. L’efficacité du traitement acaricide contre R. sanguineus a varié entre 96,1 % et 98,9 % à 48 h après l’application et a duré jusqu’à quatre semaines. Quatre des six chiens témoins ont été infectés avec E. canis, comme en témoigne la présence d’anticorps spécifiques contre E. canis et la détection par PCR d’ADN d’ E. canis dans les échantillons de sang. Ces chiens sont devenus thrombocytopénique et fiévreux et ont été consécutivement traités jusqu’à guérison par la doxycycline. Aucun des six chiens traités n’a été infecté par E. canis, comme le confirme l’absence d’anticorps spécifiques et d’ADN d’ E. canis dans les échantillons de sang. Advantix ® a empêché la transmission d’ E. canis et a fourni une protection contre l’ehrlichiose monocytaire pendant quatre semaines après le traitement acaricide.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

          Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.
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            Tick-borne infectious diseases of dogs.

            Tick-transmitted infections are an emerging problem in dogs. In addition to causing serious disease in traditional tropical and semi-tropical regions, they are now increasingly recognized as a cause of disease in dogs in temperate climates and urban environments. Furthermore, subclinically infected companion animals could provide a reservoir for human tick-transmitted infectious agents, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingll, the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group and Rickettsia conorii. Here, we discuss the emergence of new canine tick-transmitted diseases, which results from several factors, including the expansion of the tick range into urban and semi-urban areas worldwide, the movement of infected dogs into previously non-endemic areas, and the advent of novel molecular techniques for diagnosis and pathogen identification.
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              Tick-borne infections in dogs-an emerging infectious threat.

               Bruno Chomel (2011)
              Many viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens have been associated with tick transmission, including several recently identified pathogens in both humans and domestic animals, especially dogs. The emergence in dogs of these tick-borne infections has a multi factorial origin. Better animal care, better diagnostic tools, and a broader distribution of the vectors in favorable habitats through population migrations including travel with owned pets, translocation or commercial trade of pet dogs, are some of the factors contributing to the emergence and recognition of these new pathogens. The present review focuses on the recent epidemiological studies which support the emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne pathogens in dogs around the world, as well as give some insight on newly recognized potentially tick-borne pathogens, such as Bartonella infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                21 October 2013
                : 20
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2013/01 )
                [1 ] ClinVet International (Pty) Ltd PO Box 11186 Universitas, Bloemfontein 9321 South Africa
                [2 ] Bayer Animal Health GmbH, BHC Business Group Animal Health, Clinical Development, Building 6700 51368 Leverkussen Germany
                [3 ] Utrecht Centre for Tick-Borne Diseases (UCTD), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1 3584 CL Utrecht The Netherlands
                [4 ] Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110 South Africa
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: josephus.fourie@ 123456clinvet.com
                parasite130038 10.1051/parasite/2013037
                © J. J. Fourie et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 17, Pages: 7
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