Tuberculosis is a common chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb) infection, of which pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common. At present, tuberculosis ranks among the top ten leading causes of death in the world and is the top killer due to a single infections agent, causing serious public health problems around the world. In 2017, there were about 10 million new tuberculosis cases worldwide, and approximately 1.57 million people died of tuberculosis. China is one of the countries with high burden of tuberculosis, with the annual number of patients only less than India, ranking second in the world. It is estimated that about a quarter of the global population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is at risk of progressing to active tuberculosis. Tuberculosis patients are the main source of infection. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients at an early stage is of great significance for the prevention and control of tuberculosis. This article reviews the research progress of tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic techniques from three aspects of bacteriology, immunology and molecular biology, and introduces its basic principles and application prospects, aiming to provide reference for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis.
摘要： 结核病是一种常见的慢性传染性疾病, 由结核分枝杆菌感染引起, 其中, 以肺结核最为常见。目前, 结核病 位列全球十大死因之一, 是单一传染病中的头号杀手, 在全球范围内造成严重的公共卫生问题。2017 年, 全球新发结 核病约 1 000 万例, 约 157 万人死于结核病。中国是结核病高负担国家之一, 年发病人数仅次于印度, 位居世界第 2 位。 据估计, 全球约有 1/4 的人口感染了结核分枝杆菌, 面临进展为结核病的风险。结核病患者是结核病主要的传染源, 因 此, 在早期对结核病患者做出准确的诊断并提供治疗, 对于结核病的防治工作具有重大意义。本文从细菌学、免疫学 和分子生物学三个方面对结核病实验室诊断技术的研究进展进行综述, 介绍其基本原理及应用前景, 旨在为结核病的 临床诊断提供参考。