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      A remarkable new species of the millipede genus Trachyjulus Peters, 1864 (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Cambalopsidae) from Thailand, based both on morphological and molecular evidence

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          Abstract

          A new, giant species of Trachyjulus from a cave in southern Thailand is described, illustrated, and compared to morphologically closely related taxa. This new species, T. magnus sp. nov., is much larger than all other congeners and looks especially similar to the grossly sympatric T. unciger Golovatch, Geoffroy, Mauriès & VandenSpiegel, 2012, which is widespread in southern Thailand. Phylogenetic trees, both rooted and unrooted, based on a concatenated dataset of the COI and 28S genes of nine species of Cambalopsidae ( Trachyjulus , Glyphiulus , and Plusioglyphiulus ), strongly support the monophyly of Trachyjulus and a clear-cut divergence between T. magnus sp. nov. and T. unciger in revealing very high average p-distances of the COI gene (20.80–23.62%).

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          Most cited references 23

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          Why highly expressed proteins evolve slowly

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            Anamorphosis in millipedes (Diplopoda)-the present state of knowledge with some developmental and phylogenetic considerations

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              Investigation of molluscan phylogeny using large-subunit and small-subunit nuclear rRNA sequences.

              The Mollusca represent one of the most morphologically diverse animal phyla, prompting a variety of hypotheses on relationships between the major lineages within the phylum based upon morphological, developmental, and paleontological data. Analyses of small-ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence have provided limited resolution of higher-level relationships within the Mollusca. Recent analyses suggest large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences are useful in resolving deep-level metazoan relationships, particularly when combined with SSU sequence. To this end, LSU (approximately 3.5 kb in length) and SSU (approximately 2 kb) sequences were collected for 33 taxa representing the major lineages within the Mollusca to improve resolution of intraphyletic relationships. Although the LSU and combined LSU+SSU datasets appear to hold potential for resolving branching order within the recognized molluscan classes, low bootstrap support was found for relationships between the major lineages within the Mollusca. LSU+SSU sequences also showed significant levels of rate heterogeneity between molluscan lineages. The Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and Cephalopoda were each recovered as monophyletic clades with the LSU+SSU dataset. While the Bivalvia were not recovered as monophyletic clade in analyses of the SSU, LSU, or LSU+SSU, the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test showed that likelihood scores for these results did not differ significantly from topologies where the Bivalvia were monophyletic. Analyses of LSU sequences strongly contradict the widely accepted Diasoma hypotheses that bivalves and scaphopods are closely related to one another. The data are consistent with recent morphological and SSU analyses suggesting scaphopods are more closely related to gastropods and cephalopods than to bivalves. The dataset also presents the first published DNA sequences from a neomeniomorph aplacophoran, a group considered critical to our understanding of the origin and early radiation of the Mollusca. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                08 April 2020
                : 925
                : 55-72
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Division of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Production, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand Maejo University Chiang Mai Thailand
                [2 ] Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071, Russia Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia
                [3 ] Animal Systematics and Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                [4 ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 Thailand Khon Kaen University Khon Kaen Thailand
                [5 ] Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Chulalongkorn University Bangkok Thailand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Somsak Panha ( somsak.pan@ 123456chula.ac.th )

                Academic editor: D. V. Spiegel

                Article
                49953
                10.3897/zookeys.925.49953
                7160207
                Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Sergei I. Golovatch, Ekgachai Jeratthitikul, Ruttapon Srisonchai, Chirasak Sutcharit, Somsak Panha

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Cambalopsidae
                Diplopoda
                Spirostreptida
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                Asia

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