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      Microbial Transformation of Flavonoids by Isaria fumosorosea ACCC 37814

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      Molecules

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      Isaria fumosorosea, flavonoids, microbial transformation, methylglycosylation

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          Abstract

          Glycosylation is an efficient strategy to modulate the solubility, stability, bioavailability and bioactivity of drug-like natural products. Biological methods, such as whole-cell biocatalyst, promise a simple but highly effective approach to glycosylate biologically active small molecules with remarkable regio- and stereo-selectivity. Herein, we use the entomopathogenic filamentous fungus Isaria fumosorosea ACCC 37814 to biotransform a panel of phenolic natural products, including flavonoids and anthraquinone, into their glycosides. Six new flavonoid (4- O-methyl)glucopyranosides are obtained and structurally characterized using high resolution mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. These compounds further expand the structural diversity of flavonoid glycosides and may be used in biological study.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Flavonoids as antioxidants.

          Flavonoids are phenolic substances isolated from a wide range of vascular plants, with over 8000 individual compounds known. They act in plants as antioxidants, antimicrobials, photoreceptors, visual attractors, feeding repellants, and for light screening. Many studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit biological activities, including antiallergenic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, and vasodilating actions. However, most interest has been devoted to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids, which is due to their ability to reduce free radical formation and to scavenge free radicals. The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in vitro has been the subject of several studies in the past years, and important structure-activity relationships of the antioxidant activity have been established. The antioxidant efficacy of flavonoids in vivo is less documented, presumably because of the limited knowledge on their uptake in humans. Most ingested flavonoids are extensively degraded to various phenolic acids, some of which still possess a radical-scavenging ability. Both the absorbed flavonoids and their metabolites may display an in vivo antioxidant activity, which is evidenced experimentally by the increase of the plasma antioxidant status, the sparing effect on vitamin E of erythrocyte membranes and low-density lipoproteins, and the preservation of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. This review presents the current knowledge on structural aspects and in vitro antioxidant capacity of most common flavonoids as well as in vivo antioxidant activity and effects on endogenous antioxidants.
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            Fungal metabolites. Part 11. A potent immunosuppressive activity found in Isaria sinclairii metabolite.

            A potent immunosuppressive activity was found in the culture broth of the fungus Isaria sinclairii (ATCC 24400). The metabolite, ISP-I ((2S,3R,4R)-(E)-2-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2- hydroxymethyl-14-oxoeicos-6-enoic acid, myriocin = thermozymocidin) suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes in mouse allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, but had no effect on the growth of human tumor cell lines. It also suppressed the appearance of plaque-forming cells in response to sheep red blood cells and the generation of allo-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mice after intraperitoneal or oral administration. The metabolite was 10- to 100-fold more potent than cyclosporin A as an immunosuppressive agent of the immune response in vitro and in vivo, and appears to be a candidate for clinical application as a powerful immunosuppressant.
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              The sugar moiety is a major determinant of the absorption of dietary flavonoid glycosides in man.

              Flavonoids are antioxidants present in plant foods. They occur mainly as glycosides, i.e. linked with various sugars. It is uncertain to what extent dietary flavonoid glycosides are absorbed from the gut. We investigated how the nature of the sugar group affected absorption of one major flavonoid, quercetin. Quercetin linked with glucose, i.e. quercetin glucoside and quercetin linked with rutinose, i.e. quercetin rutinoside, both occur widely in foods. When we fed these compounds to nine volunteers, the peak concentration of quercetin (Cmax) in plasma was 20 times higher and was reached (Tmax) more than ten times faster after intake of the glucoside (Cmax = 3.5+/-0.6 microM (mean +/- SE); Tmax < 0.5 h) than after the rutinoside (Cmax = 0.18+/-0.04 microM; Tmax = 6.0+/-1.2 h). The bioavailability of the rutinoside was only 20% of that of the glucoside. We suggest that quercetin glucoside is actively absorbed from the small intestine, whereas quercetin rutinoside is absorbed from the colon after deglycosylation. Absorption of other food components might also be enhanced by attachment of a glucose group.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                15 March 2019
                March 2019
                : 24
                : 6
                Affiliations
                The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing 100081, China; doufangmin@ 123456hotmail.com (F.D.); wangzhi@ 123456caas.cn (Z.W.); liguiying@ 123456caas.cn (G.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: dunbaoqing@ 123456caas.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-8210-8746
                Article
                molecules-24-01028
                10.3390/molecules24061028
                6471136
                30875913
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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