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      Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors toward Structural Health Monitoring in Composite Materials: Challenges and Solutions

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          Nowadays, smart composite materials embed miniaturized sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) in order to mitigate the risk of failure due to an overload or to unwanted inhomogeneity resulting from the fabrication process. Optical fiber sensors, and more particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, outperform traditional sensor technologies, as they are lightweight, small in size and offer convenient multiplexing capabilities with remote operation. They have thus been extensively associated to composite materials to study their behavior for further SHM purposes. This paper reviews the main challenges arising from the use of FBGs in composite materials. The focus will be made on issues related to temperature-strain discrimination, demodulation of the amplitude spectrum during and after the curing process as well as connection between the embedded optical fibers and the surroundings. The main strategies developed in each of these three topics will be summarized and compared, demonstrating the large progress that has been made in this field in the past few years.

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          Most cited references 208

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          In-fibre Bragg grating sensors

           Yun-Jiang Rao (1997)
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            High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies.

            We describe a technique for polarization sensitive optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) that achieves 22 micrometer two-point spatial resolution over 35 meters of optical length with -97 dB sensitivity in a single measurement taking only seconds. We demonstrate OFDR's versatility in both time- and frequency-domain metrology by analyzing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in both the spectral and impulse response domains. We also demonstrate how a polarization diversity receiver can be used in an OFDR system to track changes in the polarization state of light propagating through a birefringent component.
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              Fiber optics strain gauge.

               C G Hocker,  C. Butter (1978)

                Author and article information

                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                April 2014
                23 April 2014
                : 14
                : 4
                : 7394-7419
                [1 ] Electromagnetism and Telecommunication Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mons, Boulevard Dolez 31, 7000 Mons, Belgium; E-Mails: Damien.kinet@ 123456umons.ac.be (D.K.); patrice.megret@ 123456umons.ac.be (P.M.)
                [2 ] Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Evans Hall Newark 202, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716-3130, USA; E-Mails: goossen@ 123456ece.udel.edu (K.W.G.); heider@ 123456udel.edu (D.H.)
                [3 ] Source Photonics, 20550 Nordhoff Street, Chatsworth, CA 91311, USA; E-Mail: liangqchiu@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes

                Author Contributions The results coming from the researches conducted at the University of Mons in Belgium and the University of Delaware in the United States of America were performed by Damien Kinet and Liang Qiu, under the scientific supervision of Christophe Caucheteur and Keith Goossen. All authors took part to the writing and reviewing of this review article.

                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: christophe.caucheteur@ 123456umons.ac.be ; Tel.: +32-65-374-149; Fax: +32-65-374-199.
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).



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