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      Tumor-associated macrophages: from basic research to clinical application

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          Abstract

          The fact that various immune cells, including macrophages, can be found in tumor tissues has long been known. With the introduction of concept that macrophages differentiate into a classically or alternatively activated phenotype, the role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is now beginning to be elucidated. TAMs act as “protumoral macrophages,” contributing to disease progression. TAMs can promote initiation and metastasis of tumor cells, inhibit antitumor immune responses mediated by T cells, and stimulate tumor angiogenesis and subsequently tumor progression. As the relationship between TAMs and malignant tumors becomes clearer, TAMs are beginning to be seen as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancers, as well as therapeutic targets in these cases. In this review, we will discuss the origin, polarization, and role of TAMs in human malignant tumors, as well as how TAMs can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of cancer in clinics.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Immunity, inflammation, and cancer.

          Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and responses to therapy. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, and some of the molecular events that mediate this dialog have been revealed. This review outlines the principal mechanisms that govern the effects of inflammation and immunity on tumor development and discusses attractive new targets for cancer therapy and prevention. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis.

            Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend on for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that re-education of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here we discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, as well as recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects.
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              Macrophage diversity enhances tumor progression and metastasis.

              There is persuasive clinical and experimental evidence that macrophages promote cancer initiation and malignant progression. During tumor initiation, they create an inflammatory environment that is mutagenic and promotes growth. As tumors progress to malignancy, macrophages stimulate angiogenesis, enhance tumor cell migration and invasion, and suppress antitumor immunity. At metastatic sites, macrophages prepare the target tissue for arrival of tumor cells, and then a different subpopulation of macrophages promotes tumor cell extravasation, survival, and subsequent growth. Specialized subpopulations of macrophages may represent important new therapeutic targets. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +86 371 66295320 , yizhang@zzu.edu.cn
                Journal
                J Hematol Oncol
                J Hematol Oncol
                Journal of Hematology & Oncology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-8722
                28 February 2017
                28 February 2017
                2017
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.412633.1, Biotherapy Center, , The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, ; No.1 Jianshe East Road, Zhengzhou, 450052 Henan Province China
                [2 ]GRID grid.412633.1, Cancer Center, , The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, ; No.1 Jianshe East Road, Zhengzhou, 450052 Henan Province China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2189 3846, GRID grid.207374.5, School of Life Science, , Zhengzhou University, ; No.100 Kexue Road, Zhengzhou, 450001 Henan Province China
                Article
                430
                10.1186/s13045-017-0430-2
                5329931
                28241846
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81602024
                Award ID: 81171986
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2017

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