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      Risk-factor differences for nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in Mexican psychiatric patients

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          The present study compared sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities with substance use, and impulsivity features in three groups of psychiatric patients – suicide attempters, nonsuicidal self-injury, and nonsuicidal without self-injury – to determine the predictive factors for nonsuicidal self-injury or suicide behavior.

          Patients and methods

          Demographic features and self-reported substance use were assessed in 384 Mexican psychiatric patients. Impulsivity features were evaluated using the Plutchik Impulsivity Scale. Comparison analyses between groups were performed and a logistic regression model used to determine the factors associated with nonsuicidal with self-injury behavior and suicidal behavior.


          Different predictive factors were observed for nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior. Females were more likely to present nonsuicidal self-injury behaviors (odds ratio [OR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.93; P=0.03). For suicide attempters, the factors associated were younger age (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85–0.93; P<0.001), less than 6 years of schooling (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.06–0.6; P=0.004), and higher impulsivity traits, such as self-control (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03–1.36; P=0.01), planning of future actions (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66–0.95; P=0.01), and physiological behavior (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01–1.78; P=0.03).


          Our results show that in a Mexican population, impulsivity features are predictors for suicide attempts, but not for self-injury. Other factors related to sociocultural background and individual features (such as personality) may be involved in this behavioral distinction, and should be studied in future research aimed at better understanding of both self-harmful behaviors.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Non-suicidal self-injury v. attempted suicide: new diagnosis or false dichotomy?

          Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a term that is becoming popular especially in North America and it has been proposed as a new diagnosis in DSM-5. In this paper we consider what self-harm research can tell us about the concept of NSSI and examine the potential pitfalls of introducing NSSI into clinical practice.
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            Non-suicidal self-injury in United States adults: prevalence, sociodemographics, topography and functions.

             E Klonsky (2011)
            Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has received increased attention in the mental health literature and has been proposed as a diagnostic entity for DSM-5. However, data on NSSI in the United States adult population are lacking. The prevalence and nature of NSSI were examined in a random-digit dialing sample of 439 adults in the United States. Participants were recruited during July and August of 2008. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 5.9%, including 2.7% who had self-injured five or more times. The 12-month prevalence was 0.9%. Methods of NSSI reported included cutting/carving, burning, biting, scraping/scratching skin, hitting, interfering with wound healing and skin picking. Half of self-injurers reported multiple methods. The average age of onset was 16 years (median 14 years). Instances of NSSI infrequently co-occurred with suicidal thoughts and with use of alcohol or drugs and rarely required medical treatment. Most injurers reported that NSSI functioned to alleviate negative emotions. Fewer reported that they self-injured to punish themselves, to communicate with others/get attention or to escape a situation or responsibility. NSSI was associated with younger age, being unmarried and a history of mental health treatment, but not with gender, ethnicity, educational history or household income. Results are largely consistent with previous research in adolescent and young adult samples. Study limitations notwithstanding, this study provides the most definitive and detailed information to date regarding the prevalence and characteristics of NSSI in US adults. In the future, it will be important for large-scale epidemiological studies of psychopathology to include questions about NSSI.
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              Beyond the Tower of Babel: a nomenclature for suicidology.

              Suicidology finds itself confused and stagnated for lack of a standard nomenclature. This paper proposes a nomenclature for suicide-related behavior in the hope of improving the clarity and precision of communications, advancing suicidological research and knowledge, and improving the efficacy of clinical interventions.

                Author and article information

                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Dove Medical Press
                05 July 2016
                : 12
                : 1631-1637
                [1 ]Subdirección de Investigaciones Clínicas, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, México City
                [2 ]Departamento de Genética Psiquiátrica, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, México City
                [3 ]División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Jalpa de Méndez, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Jalpa de Méndez
                [4 ]División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Comalcalco, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Comalcalco
                [5 ]Hospital General de Yajalón, Secretaría de Salud, Yajalón, Chiapas, México
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate, División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Comalcalco, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Ranchería Sur, Cuarta Sección, Comalcalco, Tabasco 86650, Mexico, Tel +52 993 358 1500 ext 6901, Email alfonso_tovillaz@ 123456yahoo.com.mx
                © 2016 Fresán et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                suicide, impulsivity, mexican population, self-injury


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