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      A cross-sectional study: serum CCL3/MIP-1α levels may reflect lumbar intervertebral disk degeneration in Han Chinese people

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          Abstract

          Background

          The macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), also named chemokine cytokine ligand 3 (CCL3), has been detected in nucleus pulposus and increased following cytokine stimulation.

          Objective

          The current study was performed to explore the relationship between serum CCL3/MIP-1α levels with lumbar intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD).

          Patients and methods

          A total of 132 disk degeneration patients confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and 126 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. Radiological evaluation of the IDD was conducted using a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner for entire lumbar vertebra region. Degeneration of intervertebral disk was assessed by Schneiderman criteria. Serum CCL3/MIP-1α levels were investigated using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Visual Analog Scale scores and Oswestry Disability Index index were recorded for clinical severity.

          Results

          Elevated concentrations of CCL3 in serum were found in IDD patients compared with asymptomatic volunteers. The case group included 49 IDD patients with grade 1, 42 with grade 2, and 41 with grade 3. Grade 3 and 2 had significantly higher CCL3 concentrations in serum compared with those with grade 1. The serum CCL3 levels were positively related to the degree of disk degeneration. In addition, the serum CCL3 levels also demonstrated a significant correlation with the clinical severity determined by Visual Analog Scale scores and Oswestry Disability Index index.

          Conclusion

          Serum CCL3 may serve as a biomarker of IDD.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Role of cytokines in intervertebral disc degeneration: pain and disc content.

          Degeneration of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) is a major contributor to back, neck and radicular pain. IVD degeneration is characterized by increases in levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 secreted by the IVD cells; these cytokines promote extracellular matrix degradation, chemokine production and changes in IVD cell phenotype. The resulting imbalance in catabolic and anabolic responses leads to the degeneration of IVD tissues, as well as disc herniation and radicular pain. The release of chemokines from degenerating discs promotes the infiltration and activation of immune cells, further amplifying the inflammatory cascade. Leukocyte migration into the IVD is accompanied by the appearance of microvasculature tissue and nerve fibres. Furthermore, neurogenic factors, generated by both disc and immune cells, induce expression of pain-associated cation channels in the dorsal root ganglion. Depolarization of these ion channels is likely to promote discogenic and radicular pain, and reinforce the cytokine-mediated degenerative cascade. Taken together, an enhanced understanding of the contribution of cytokines and immune cells to these catabolic, angiogenic and nociceptive processes could provide new targets for the treatment of symptomatic disc disease. In this Review, the role of key inflammatory cytokines during each of the individual phases of degenerative disc disease, as well as the outcomes of major clinical studies aimed at blocking cytokine function, are discussed.
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            Low back pain in relation to lumbar disc degeneration.

            Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. To study the relation of low back pain (LBP) to disc degeneration in the lumbar spine. Controversy still prevails about the relationship between disc degeneration and LBP. Classification of disc degeneration and symptoms varies, hampering comparison of study results. Subjects comprised 164 men aged 40-45 years-53 machine drivers, 51 construction carpenters, and 60 office workers. The data of different types of LBP, individual characteristics, and lifestyle factors were obtained from a questionnaire and a structured interview. Degeneration of discs L2/L3-L5/S1 (dark nucleus pulposus and posterior and anterior bulge) was assessed with MRI. An increased risk of LBP (including all types) was found in relation to all signs of disc degeneration. An increased risk of sciatic pain was found in relation to posterior bulges, but local LBP was not related to disc degeneration. The risks of LBP and sciatic pain were strongly affected by occupation. Low back pain is associated with signs of disc degeneration and sciatic pain with posterior disc bulges. Low back pain is strongly associated with occupation.
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              Prevalence and pattern of lumbar magnetic resonance imaging changes in a population study of one thousand forty-three individuals.

              A cross-sectional population study of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. OBJECTIVE.: To examine the pattern and prevalence of lumbar spine MRI changes within a southern Chinese population and their relationship with back pain. Previous studies on MRI changes and back pain have used populations of asymptomatic individuals or patients presenting with back pain and sciatica. Thus, the prevalence and pattern of intervertebral disc degeneration within the population is not known. Lumbar spine MRIs were obtained in 1043 volunteers between 18 to 55 years of age. MRI changes including disc degeneration, herniation, anular tears (HIZ), and Schmorl's nodes were noted by 2 independent observers. Differences were settled by consensus. Disc degeneration was graded using Schneiderman's classification, and a total score (DDD score) was calculated by the summation of the Schneiderman's score for each lumbar level. A K-mean clustering program was used to group individuals into different patterns of degeneration. Forty percent of individuals under 30 years of age had lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (LDD), the prevalence of LDD increasing progressively to over 90% by 50 to 55 years of age. There was a positive correlation between the DDD score and low back pain. L5-S1 and L4-L5 were the most commonly affected levels. Apart from the usual patterns of degeneration, some uncommon patterns of degeneration were identified, comprising of subjects with skip level lesions (intervening normal levels) and isolated upper or mid lumbar degeneration. LDD is common, and its incidence increases with age. In a population setting, there is a significant association of LDD on MRI with back pain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                05 March 2018
                : 11
                : 497-503
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]School of Health Services Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zeng-Huan Zhou, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, ShaTai South Road No. 1023, Bai Yun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510515, People’s Republic of China, Email zzhsmu@ 123456yeah.net
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                jpr-11-497
                10.2147/JPR.S152349
                5842780
                © 2018 Zhang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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