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      TNF-α mediates chemokine and cytokine expression and renal injury in cisplatin nephrotoxicity

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      Journal of Clinical Investigation

      American Society for Clinical Investigation

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          Most cited references 33

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          Direct evidence for tumor necrosis factor-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen intermediates and their involvement in cytotoxicity.

          Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is selectively cytotoxic to some types of tumor cells in vitro and exerts antitumor activity in vivo. Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) have been implicated in the direct cytotoxic activity of TNF. By using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and the ROI-specific probe dihydrorhodamine 123, we directly demonstrate that intracellular ROIs are formed after TNF stimulation. These ROIs are observed exclusively under conditions where cells are sensitive to the cytotoxic activity of TNF, suggesting a direct link between both phenomena. ROI scavengers, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, effectively blocked the formation of free radicals and arrested the cytotoxic response, confirming that the observed ROIs are cytocidal. The mitochondrial glutathione system scavenges the major part of the produced ROIs, an activity that could be blocked by diethyl maleate; under these conditions, TNF-induced ROIs detectable by dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation were 5- to 20-fold higher.
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            Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase suppresses tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis and activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB and activated protein-1.

            Several recently identified intracellular proteins associate with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor and activate nuclear transcription factor (NF)-kappaB, c-Jun kinase, and apoptosis. However, the mechanism is not understood. In the present report, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen intermediates in TNF-induced signaling. Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells completely abolished TNF-mediated NF-kappaB activation, IkappaB alpha degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression. Besides TNF, phorbol ester-, okadaic acid-, ceramide-, and lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-kappaB was blocked by Mn-SOD, indicating a common pathway of activation. H2O2-induced NF-kappaB activation, however, was potentiated. In addition, Mn-SOD blocked the TNF-mediated activation of activated protein-1, stress-activated c-Jun protein kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. TNF-induced antiproliferative effects and caspase-3 activation, indicators of apoptosis, were also completely suppressed by transfection of cells with Mn-SOD. Suppression of apoptosis induced by okadaic acid, H2O2, and taxol was also inhibited by Mn-SOD but not that induced by vincristine, vinblastine, or daunomycin. Overall, these results demonstrate that, in addition to several recently identified signaling molecules, reactive oxygen intermediates play a critical role in activation of NF-kappaB, activated protein-1, c-Jun kinase, and apoptosis induced by TNF and other agents.
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              Mechanisms of death induced by cisplatin in proximal tubular epithelial cells: apoptosis vs. necrosis.

              We have examined the mechanisms of cell death induced by cisplatin in primary cultures of mouse proximal tubular cells. High concentrations of cisplatin (800 microM) led to necrotic cell death over a few hours. Much lower concentrations of cisplatin (8 microM) led to apoptosis, which caused loss of the cell monolayer over several days. Necrosis was characterized by a cytosolic swelling and early loss of plasma membrane integrity. In contrast, early features of cells undergoing apoptosis included cell shrinkage and loss of attachment to the monolayers. Nuclear chromatin became condensed and fragmented in apoptosing cells. These features were absent in necrotic cells. DNA electrophoresis of cells exposed to 800 microM cisplatin yielded a "smear" pattern, due to random DNA degradation. In contrast, the DNA of apoptosing cells demonstrated a "ladder" pattern resulting from internucleosomal DNA cleavage. Antioxidants delayed cisplatin-induced apoptosis but not necrosis. Thus the mechanism of cell death induced by cisplatin is concentration dependent. Reactive oxygen species play a role in mediating apoptosis but not necrosis induced by cisplatin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                September 15 2002
                September 15 2002
                : 110
                : 6
                : 835-842
                Article
                10.1172/JCI200215606
                © 2002
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.jci.org/articles/view/15606

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