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      Short-term effect of anti-VEGF for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy according to the presence of choroidal neovascularization using optical coherence tomography angiography

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To analyze the short-term therapeutic efficacy of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) according to the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

          Methods

          A retrospective chart review was perfomed on cases of CSC with CNV (Group 1: n = 31) and an age-matched cases of CSC without CNV (Group 2: n = 30). The response to IVB was evaluated by changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), choroidal thickness (CT), and pachyvessel diameter. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the visual outcome of chronic CSC with CNV after IVB.

          Results

          At baseline, the CT values differed significantly between Groups 1 and 2 (371.55 ± 67.09 vs. 417.33 ± 71.32 μm, p = 0.01). In Group 1, BCVA improved significantly (p < 0.001), and CMT (p < 0.001), CT (p = 0.001) and pachyvessel diameter (p = 0.045) decreased significantly, after IVB. In Group 2, only pachyvessel diameter (p = 0.001) was significantly smaller after IVB. Univariate analysis showed that the initial CT (B = 0.002, p = 0.026) and pachyvessel diameter (B = 0.002, p = 0.001) significantly affected visual outcome. In multivariate analysis, the initial pachyvessel diameter exhibited significant results (B = 0.002, p = 0.001).

          Conclusions

          IVB showed less effective short-term outcomes in chronic CSC patients without CNV than in patients with CNV. In chronic CSC with CNV, the short-term visual outcome after IVB was better in patients with a thinner choroid and smaller pachyvessels.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Central serous chorioretinopathy.

          Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a disease of the retina characterized by serous detachment of the neurosensory retina secondary to one or more focal lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). CSC occurs most frequently in mid-life and more often in men than in women. Major symptoms are blurred vision, usually in one eye only and perceived typically by the patient as a dark spot in the centre of the visual field with associated micropsia and metamorphopsia. Normal vision often recurs spontaneously within a few months. The condition can be precipitated by psychosocial stress and hypercortisolism. Ophthalmoscopic signs of CSC range from mono- or paucifocal RPE lesions with prominent elevation of the neurosensory retina by clear fluid - typical of cases of recent onset - to shallow detachments overlying large patches of irregularly depigmented RPE. The spectrum of lesions includes RPE detachments. Granular or fibrinous material may accumulate in the subretinal cavity. Serous detachment often resolves spontaneously. From first contact, counselling about the potential relation to stress and glucocorticoid medication is warranted. After 3 months without resolution of acute CSC or in chronic CSC, treatment should be considered. Resolution of detachment can usually be achieved in acute CSC by focal photocoagulation of leaking RPE lesions or, in chronic CSC, by photodynamic therapy. The effect of therapy on long-term visual outcome is insufficiently documented. Reattachment within 4 months of onset is considered a relevant therapeutic target because prolonged detachment is associated with photoreceptor atrophy. This suggests that the value of treatment depends upon proper selection of cases that will not resolve without therapy. Chronic CSC may be difficult to differentiate from occult choroidal neovascularization secondary to CSC. Patients with chronic CSC who receive glucocorticoid treatment for systemic disease can often be managed without having to discontinue this medication.
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            Central serous chorioretinopathy: update on pathophysiology and treatment.

            Recent technological advances--new pathophysiological insights, new imaging techniques for diagnosis and management, and new treatments--have led to an improved understanding of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The primary role of the choroid has become more widely accepted with widespread use of indocyanine green angiography. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), and particularly enhanced depth imaging OCT, demonstrate a thickened and engorged choroid. Adaptive optics, fundus autofluorescence, multifocal electroretinography, microperimetry, and contrast sensitivity testing reveal that patients with even a mild course suffer previously undetected anatomic and functional loss. Although focal laser and photodynamic therapy are the current standard of care for persistent subretinal fluid in CSC, they are not appropriate in all cases, and the optimal timing of intervention remains unclear. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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              Optical coherence tomography angiography

              Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. Building on that platform, OCT angiography (OCTA) provides depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina and choroid with levels of detail far exceeding that obtained with older forms of imaging. This new modality is challenging because of the need for new equipment and processing techniques, current limitations of imaging capability, and rapid advancements in both imaging and in our understanding of the imaging and applicable pathophysiology of the retina and choroid. These factors lead to a steep learning curve, even for those with a working understanding dye-based ocular angiography. All for a method of imaging that is a little more than 10 years old. This review begins with a historical account of the development of OCTA, and the methods used in OCTA, including signal processing, image generation, and display techniques. This forms the basis to understand what OCTA images show as well as how image artifacts arise. The anatomy and imaging of specific vascular layers of the eye are reviewed. The integration of OCTA in multimodal imaging in the evaluation of retinal vascular occlusive diseases, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, inherited diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and disorders of the optic nerve is presented. OCTA is an exciting, disruptive technology. Its use is rapidly expanding in clinical practice as well as for research into the pathophysiology of diseases of the posterior pole.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Investigation
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Investigation
                Role: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 January 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
                Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-27560
                10.1371/journal.pone.0245342
                7799826
                33428683
                © 2021 Song et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 10
                Product
                Funding
                The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
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