Cardiovascular disease is responsible for a large and increasing proportion of death and disability worldwide. Half of this burden occurs in Asia. This study assessed the possible effects of population-wide (2% lower DBP for all) and targeted (7% lower DBP for those with usual DBP > or = 95 mmHg) BP interventions in Asia, using data from surveys of blood pressure levels, the Global Burden of Disease Project, Eastern Asian cohort studies and randomised trials of blood pressure lowering. Overall each of the two interventions would be expected to avert about one million deaths per year throughout Asia in 2020. These benefits would be approximately additive. About half a million deaths might be averted annually by each intervention in China alone, with about four-fifths of this benefit due to averted stroke. The relative benefits of these two strategies are similar to estimates made for US and UK populations. However, the absolute benefits are many times greater due to the size of the predicted CVD burden in Asia.