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      Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exposed to Different Environmental Risk Factors: A Large Cross-Sectional Study

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Tobacco smoking, biomass smoke, and occupational exposure are the main risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study analyzes data on exposure to these factors in a cohort of patients with COPD and assesses their differences in demographic and clinical characteristics.

          Patients and Methods

          The cross-sectional observational study was conducted from November 2016 to December 2019. Inclusion criteria were patients aged over 40 years old with post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.7. At baseline, demographic features and exposure history were recorded. Moreover, respiratory symptoms were assessed by the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC). A generalized linear mixed model was used to adjust for potential confounders.

          Results

          A total of 5183 patients with COPD were included in the final analysis. The results demonstrate that exposure to tobacco combined with other risk factors resulted in significantly higher CAT scores (16.0 ± 6.7 vs 15.3 ± 6.3, P = 0.003) and more severe dyspnea (patients with mMRC ≥ 2, 71.5% vs 61.6%, P < 0.001) than exposure to tobacco alone. In addition, COPD patients with biomass smoke exposure alone had higher CAT scores than patients with only tobacco or occupational exposure (17.5 ± 6.3 vs 15.3 ± 6.3, and 15.2 ± 6.3, respectively, P < 0.05 for each comparison) and were more likely to be female and older. In addition, COPD patients who suffered from occupational exposure developed more severe dyspnea than those exposed to tobacco alone (70.8% vs 61.6%, P < 0.05), as did those exposed to biomass smoke alone (74.2% vs 61.6%, P < 0.05). This difference remained strong even after adjustment for potential confounders.

          Conclusion

          There are significant demographic and clinical differences among COPD patients with tobacco smoking, biomass smoke, and occupational exposures.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Clinical Significance of Symptoms in Smokers with Preserved Pulmonary Function.

          Currently, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 0.70 as assessed by spirometry after bronchodilator use. However, many smokers who do not meet this definition have respiratory symptoms.
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            COPD in Never Smokers

            Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ≥ 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers.
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              Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study

              COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre-bronchodilator obstructive spirometry (FEV1/FVC < 0.70). In absence of an interpretable spirometry within the Rotterdam Study, cases were defined as having COPD diagnosed by a physician on the basis of clinical presentation and obstructive lung function measured by the general practitioner or respiratory physician. Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of incident cases by the total number of person years of subjects at risk. In this cohort of 14,619 participants, 1993 subjects with COPD were identified of whom 689 as prevalent ones and 1304 cases as incident ones. The overall incidence rate (IR) of COPD was 8.9/1000 person-years (PY); 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 8.4–9.4. The IR was higher in males and in smokers. The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was 27.2 %, while this proportion was 7.3 % in males. The prevalence of COPD in the Rotterdam Study is 4.7 % and the overall incidence is approximately 9/1000 PY, with a higher incidence in males and in smokers. The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10654-016-0132-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                copd
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                06 November 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 2857-2867
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan 410011, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Research Unit of Respiratory Disease, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan 410011, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Division 4 of Occupational Diseases, Hunan Prevention and Treatment Institute for Occupational Diseases , Changsha, Hunan 410000, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Hospital of Changsha , Changsha, Hunan 410011, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The No.1 Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital in Changde , Changde, Hunan 415000, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First People’s Hospital of Huaihua , Huaihua, Hunan 418000, People’s Republic of China
                [7 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University , Guilin, Guangxi 541000, People’s Republic of China
                [8 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Second People’s Hospital of Guilin , Guilin, Guangxi 541000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ping ChenDepartment of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , 139 Renmin Middle Road, Changsha, Hunan410011, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 731 8529 5248 Email pingchen0731@csu.edu.cn
                Article
                267114
                10.2147/COPD.S267114
                7654530
                © 2020 Duan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 15, References: 40, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

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