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      Increase in Serum Ionized Calcium during Diffusive Dialysis Does Not Affect Left Ventricular Diastolic Function

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          An increase in serum Ca<sup>2+</sup> during hemodialysis (HD) may lead to impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation. Since LV diastolic function assessment in dialysis patients is hampered by preload dependence of Doppler measurements, we tested the effect of HD without ultrafiltration (UF) on these measurements. Transmitral E and A velocities, and mitral annulus e and a velocities were measured in 10 patients before and after 1 h of HD without UF. Dialysate Ca<sup>2+</sup> was 1.75 mmol/l. Serum Ca<sup>2+ </sup>after 1 h (1.31 mmol/l; 1.28–1.46 mmol/l) was higher (p = 0.002) than before HD (1.24 mmol/l; 1.09–1.32 mmol/l). E/A (0.8; 0.4–2.8) and e/a (0.7; 0.4–1.3) after 1 h were not different than E/A (0.8; 0.6–5.1) and e/a (0.7; 0.4–1.8) before HD. The increase in serum Ca<sup>2+ </sup>does not lead to a change in Doppler parameters of LV diastolic function. Changes in these parameters after combined HD-UF are related to preload, not to serum Ca<sup>2+</sup>.

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          New Doppler echocardiographic applications for the study of diastolic function.

          Doppler echocardiography is one of the most useful clinical tools for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Doppler indices of LV filling and pulmonary venous (PV) flow are used not only for diagnostic purposes but also for establishing prognosis and evaluating the effect of therapeutic interventions. The utility of these indices is limited, however, by the confounding effects of different physiologic variables such as LV relaxation, compliance and filling pressure. Since alterations in these variables result in changes in Doppler indices of opposite direction, it is often difficult to determine the status of a given variable when a specific Doppler filling pattern is observed. Recently, color M-mode and tissue Doppler have provided useful insights in the study of diastolic function. These new Doppler applications have been shown to provide an accurate estimate of LV relaxation and appear to be relatively insensitive to the effects of preload compensation. This review will focus on the complementary role of color M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography and traditional Doppler indices of LV filling and PV flow in the assessment of diastolic function.
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            Preload dependence of Doppler-derived indexes of left ventricular diastolic function in humans.

            To determine the effect of filling pressure on the pattern of left ventricular filling in humans, the mitral flow velocity profile was measured by pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography during right and left heart catheterization in 11 patients before and during nitroglycerin infusion. Nitroglycerin reduced mean arterial pressure from 90 +/- 9 to 80 +/- 11 mm Hg (p less than 0.001) and mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure from 9 +/- 4 to 4 +/- 2 mm Hg (p less than 0.001). Cardiac output fell from 6.6 +/- 1.5 to 5.5 +/- 1.4 liters/min (p less than 0.001) and heart rate increased from 60 +/- 13 to 65 +/- 14 beats/min (p less than 0.002). The time constant of isovolumic relaxation (TI.) decreased from 51 +/- 9 to 46 +/- 8 ms (p less than 0.01), indicating faster left ventricular relaxation. Nitroglycerin altered the Doppler characteristics of the early filling (E) wave but not those of the atrial contraction (A) wave. Peak velocity of the E wave decreased from 56 +/- 14 to 44 +/- 9 cm/s (p less than 0.001), peak velocity of the A wave did not change and the ratio of peak velocities of the E and A waves decreased from 0.97 +/- 0.33 to 0.77 +/- 0.20 (p less than 0.02). The deceleration of the E wave decreased from 289 +/- 138 to 186 +/- 71 cm/s2 (p less than 0.02). The ratio of velocity-time integral of the A wave to total velocity-time integral (that is, contribution of atrial contraction to total filling) increased from 0.31 +/- 0.09 to 0.36 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.03).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              Preload dependence of new Doppler techniques limits their utility for left ventricular diastolic function assessment in hemodialysis patients.

              Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy leads to diastolic dysfunction. Standard Doppler transmitral and pulmonary vein (PV) flow velocity measurements are preload dependent. New techniques such as mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) and LV inflow propagation velocity measured from color M-mode have been proposed as relatively preload-independent measurements of diastolic function. These parameters were studied before and after hemodialysis (HD) with ultrafiltration to test their potential advantage for LV diastolic function assessment in HD patients. Ten patients (seven with LV hypertrophy) underwent Doppler echocardiography 1 h before, 1 h after, and 1 d after HD. Early (E) and atrial (A) peak transmitral flow velocities, peak PV systolic (s) and diastolic (d) flow velocities, peak e and a mitral annulus velocities in DTI, and early diastolic LV flow propagation velocity (V(p)) were measured. In all patients, the E/A ratio after HD (0.54; 0.37 to 1.02) was lower (P < 0.01) than before HD (0.77; 0.60 to 1.34). E decreased (P < 0.01), whereas A did not. PV s/d after HD (2.15; 1.08 to 3.90) was higher (P < 0.01) than before HD (1.80; 1.25 to 2.68). Tissue e/a after HD (0.40; 0.26 to 0.96) was lower (P < 0.01) than before HD (0.56; 0.40 to 1.05). Tissue e decreased (P < 0.02), whereas a did not. V(p) after HD (30 cm/s; 16 to 47 cm/s) was lower (P < 0.01) than before HD (45 cm/s; 32 to 60 cm/s). Twenty-four hours after the initial measurements values for E/A (0.59; 0.37 to 1.23), PV s/d (1.85; 1.07 to 3.38), e/a (0.41; 0.27 to 1.06), and V(p) (28 cm/s; 23 to 33 cm/s) were similar as those taken 1 h after HD. It is concluded that, even when using the newer Doppler techniques DTI and color M-mode, pseudonormalization, which was due to volume overload before HD, resulted in underestimation of the degree of diastolic dysfunction. Therefore, the advantage of these techniques over conventional parameters for the assessment of LV diastolic function in HD patients is limited. Assessment of LV diastolic function should not be performed shortly before HD, and its time relation to HD is essential.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                November 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 22
                : 5
                : 469-472
                Departments of aMedicine and bCardiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                81694 Blood Purif 2004;22:469–472
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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