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Prediction of Preterm Birth: Maternal Characteristics, Ultrasound Markers, and Biomarkers: An Updated Overview

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Journal of Pregnancy

Hindawi

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      Abstract

      There is not a single or combined screening method for preterm birth with high sensitivity which will truly identify the women at risk for preterm birth while also with high specificity to prevent unnecessary interventions and high treatment costs. Measurement of cervical length is the most cost-effective method that is used in clinical practice. Bedside tests have also been developed for detecting markers like fetal fibronectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), interleukin-6, and placental alpha-macroglobulin-1. Taking the maternal history, health condition, and sociodemographical factors into consideration is recommended. Ultrasound markers apart from cervical length measurements as uterocervical angle and placental strain ratio are studied. Investigations on metabolomics, proteomics, and microRNA profiling have brought a new aspect on this subject. Maybe in the future, with clear identification of women at true risk for preterm birth, development of more effective preventive strategies will not be unfeasible.

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      Most cited references 78

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      National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications.

      Preterm birth is the second largest direct cause of child deaths in children younger than 5 years. Yet, data regarding preterm birth (<37 completed weeks of gestation) are not routinely collected by UN agencies, and no systematic country estimates nor time trend analyses have been done. We report worldwide, regional, and national estimates of preterm birth rates for 184 countries in 2010 with time trends for selected countries, and provide a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty surrounding these estimates. We assessed various data sources according to prespecified inclusion criteria. National Registries (563 datapoints, 51 countries), Reproductive Health Surveys (13 datapoints, eight countries), and studies identified through systematic searches and unpublished data (162 datapoints, 40 countries) were included. 55 countries submitted additional data during WHO's country consultation process. For 13 countries with adequate quality and quantity of data, we estimated preterm birth rates using country-level loess regression for 2010. For 171 countries, two regional multilevel statistical models were developed to estimate preterm birth rates for 2010. We estimated time trends from 1990 to 2010 for 65 countries with reliable time trend data and more than 10,000 livebirths per year. We calculated uncertainty ranges for all countries. In 2010, an estimated 14·9 million babies (uncertainty range 12·3-18·1 million) were born preterm, 11·1% of all livebirths worldwide, ranging from about 5% in several European countries to 18% in some African countries. More than 60% of preterm babies were born in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where 52% of the global livebirths occur. Preterm birth also affects rich countries, for example, USA has high rates and is one of the ten countries with the highest numbers of preterm births. Of the 65 countries with estimated time trends, only three (Croatia, Ecuador, and Estonia), had reduced preterm birth rates 1990-2010. The burden of preterm birth is substantial and is increasing in those regions with reliable data. Improved recording of all pregnancy outcomes and standard application of preterm definitions is important. We recommend the addition of a data-quality indicator of the per cent of all live preterm births that are under 28 weeks' gestation. Distinguishing preterm births that are spontaneous from those that are provider-initiated is important to monitor trends associated with increased caesarean sections. Rapid scale up of basic interventions could accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4 for child survival and beyond. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through grants to Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) and Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme; March of Dimes; the Partnership for Maternal Newborn and Childe Health; and WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        The length of the cervix and the risk of spontaneous premature delivery. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal Fetal Medicine Unit Network.

        The role of the cervix in the pathogenesis of premature delivery is controversial. In a prospective, multicenter study of pregnant women, we used vaginal ultrasonography to measure the length of the cervix; we also documented the incidence of spontaneous delivery before 35 weeks' gestation. At 10 university-affiliated prenatal clinics, we performed vaginal ultrasonography at approximately 24 and 28 weeks of gestation in women with singleton pregnancies. We then assessed the relation between the length of the cervix and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. We examined 2915 women at approximately 24 weeks of gestation and 2531 of these women again at approximately 28 weeks. Spontaneous preterm delivery (at less than 35 weeks) occurred in 126 of the women (4.3 percent) examined at 24 weeks. The length of the cervix was normally distributed at 24 and 28 weeks (mean [+/- SD], 35.2 +/- 8.3 mm and 33.7 +/- 8.5 mm, respectively). The relative risk of preterm delivery increased as the length of the cervix decreased. When women with shorter cervixes at 24 weeks were compared with women with values above the 75th percentile, the relative risks of preterm delivery among the women with shorter cervixes were as follows: 1.98 for cervical lengths at or below the 75th percentile (40 mm), 2.35 for lengths at or below the 50th percentile (35 mm), 3.79 for lengths at or below the 25th percentile (30 mm), 6.19 for lengths at or below the 10th percentile (26 mm), 9.49 for lengths at or below the 5th percentile (22 mm), and 13.99 for lengths at or below the 1st percentile (13 mm) (P < 0.001 for values at or below the 50th percentile; P = 0.008 for values at or below the 75th percentile). For the lengths measured at 28 weeks, the corresponding relative risks were 2.80, 3.52, 5.39, 9.57, 13.88, and 24.94 (P < 0.001 for values at or below the 50th percentile; P = 0.003 for values at the 75th percentile). The risk of spontaneous preterm delivery is increased in women who are found to have a short cervix by vaginal ultrasonography during pregnancy.
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          Maternal underweight and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

          Despite the current obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence with potential adverse perinatal outcomes. Our objective was to determine the relationship between maternal underweight and preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) in singleton pregnancies in developing and developed countries. We followed the MOOSE consensus statement. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inceptions. We included studies that assessed the effect of maternal underweight compared with normal weight according to body mass index in singleton gestations on our two primary outcomes: PTB (<37 weeks) and LBW (<2500 g). Two assessors independently reviewed citations, extracted data and assessed quality. A total of 78 studies were included involving 1 025 794 women. The overall risk of PTB was increased in the cohort studies of underweight women [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.46], as were the risks of spontaneous PTB (adjusted RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.57) and induced PTB (adjusted RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36). Underweight women had an increased risk of an LBW infant (adjusted RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38-1.94). In developed countries, underweight women had an increased risk of PTB (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.30) but not in developing countries (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.67-1.45). In both developed and developing countries, underweight women were at increased risk of having an LBW infant (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.29-1.68, and RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.25-1.85, respectively). In this systematic review and meta-analyses, we determined that singletons born to underweight women have higher risks of PTB (overall, spontaneous and induced) and LBW than those born to women with normal weight.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            University of Health Sciences, Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Care, Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Padma Murthi

            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7554-4393
            Journal
            J Pregnancy
            J Pregnancy
            JP
            Journal of Pregnancy
            Hindawi
            2090-2727
            2090-2735
            2018
            10 October 2018
            : 2018
            6199875
            10.1155/2018/8367571
            Copyright © 2018 Zeynep Asli Oskovi Kaplan and A. Seval Ozgu-Erdinc.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Review Article

            Obstetrics & Gynecology

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