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      An adipocentric perspective on the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

      , ,
      Journal of Hepatology
      Elsevier BV

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          A new definition for metabolic associated fatty liver disease: an international expert consensus statement

          The exclusion of other chronic liver diseases including "excess" alcohol intake has until now been necessary to establish a diagnosis of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). However, given our current understanding of the pathogenesis of MAFLD and its rising prevalence, "positive criteria" to diagnose the disease are required. In this work, a panel of international experts from 22 countries propose a new definition for the diagnosis of MAFLD that is both comprehensive and simple, and is independent of other liver diseases. The criteria are based on evidence of hepatic steatosis, in addition to one of the following three criteria, namely overweight/obesity, presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, or evidence of metabolic dysregulation. We propose that disease assessment and stratification of severity should extend beyond a simple dichotomous classification to steatohepatitis vs. non-steatohepatitis. The group also suggests a set of criteria to define MAFLD-associated cirrhosis and proposes a conceptual framework to consider other causes of fatty liver disease. Finally, we bring clarity to the distinction between diagnostic criteria and inclusion criteria for research studies and clinical trials. Reaching consensus on the criteria for MAFLD will help unify the terminology (e.g. for ICD-coding), enhance the legitimacy of clinical practice and clinical trials, improve clinical care and move the clinical and scientific field of liver research forward.
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            NAFLD: a multisystem disease.

            Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries that is predicted to become also the most frequent indication for liver transplantation by 2030. Over the last decade, it has been shown that the clinical burden of NAFLD is not only confined to liver-related morbidity and mortality, but there is now growing evidence that NAFLD is a multisystem disease, affecting extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. For example, NAFLD increases risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular (CVD) and cardiac diseases, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the primary liver pathology in NAFLD affects hepatic structure and function to cause morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, the majority of deaths among NAFLD patients are attributable to CVD. This narrative review focuses on the rapidly expanding body of clinical evidence that supports the concept of NAFLD as a multisystem disease. The review discusses the factors involved in the progression of liver disease in NAFLD and the factors linking NAFLD with other extra-hepatic chronic diseases, such as T2DM, CVD, cardiac diseases and CKD. The review will not discuss NAFLD treatments as these are discussed elsewhere in this issue of the Journal. For this review, PubMed was searched for articles using the keywords "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" or "fatty liver" combined with "diabetes", "cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease", "cardiovascular mortality" or "chronic kidney disease" between 1990 and 2014. Articles published in languages other than English were excluded.
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              Mechanisms of Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance

              The 1921 discovery of insulin was a Big Bang from which a vast and expanding universe of research into insulin action and resistance has issued. In the intervening century, some discoveries have matured, coalescing into solid and fertile ground for clinical application; others remain incompletely investigated and scientifically controversial. Here, we attempt to synthesize this work to guide further mechanistic investigation and to inform the development of novel therapies for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The rational development of such therapies necessitates detailed knowledge of one of the key pathophysiological processes involved in T2D: insulin resistance. Understanding insulin resistance, in turn, requires knowledge of normal insulin action. In this review, both the physiology of insulin action and the pathophysiology of insulin resistance are described, focusing on three key insulin target tissues: skeletal muscle, liver, and white adipose tissue. We aim to develop an integrated physiological perspective, placing the intricate signaling effectors that carry out the cell-autonomous response to insulin in the context of the tissue-specific functions that generate the coordinated organismal response. First, in section II, the effectors and effects of direct, cell-autonomous insulin action in muscle, liver, and white adipose tissue are reviewed, beginning at the insulin receptor and working downstream. Section III considers the critical and underappreciated role of tissue crosstalk in whole body insulin action, especially the essential interaction between adipose lipolysis and hepatic gluconeogenesis. The pathophysiology of insulin resistance is then described in section IV. Special attention is given to which signaling pathways and functions become insulin resistant in the setting of chronic overnutrition, and an alternative explanation for the phenomenon of ‟selective hepatic insulin resistanceˮ is presented. Sections V, VI, and VII critically examine the evidence for and against several putative mediators of insulin resistance. Section V reviews work linking the bioactive lipids diacylglycerol, ceramide, and acylcarnitine to insulin resistance; section VI considers the impact of nutrient stresses in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria on insulin resistance; and section VII discusses non-cell autonomous factors proposed to induce insulin resistance, including inflammatory mediators, branched-chain amino acids, adipokines, and hepatokines. Finally, in section VIII, we propose an integrated model of insulin resistance that links these mediators to final common pathways of metabolite-driven gluconeogenesis and ectopic lipid accumulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hepatology
                Journal of Hepatology
                Elsevier BV
                01688278
                May 2023
                May 2023
                : 78
                : 5
                : 1048-1062
                Article
                10.1016/j.jhep.2023.01.024
                36740049
                71f1ac68-db4c-40e2-8b25-ad8381af34f0
                © 2023

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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