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      Protocol of a case-control longitudinal study (fraXity) assessing frailty and complexity among Swiss home service recipients using interRAI-HC assessments

      research-article
      1 , , 2
      BMC Geriatrics
      BioMed Central
      Frailty, Complexity, Standardized geriatric assessment, Home care, Nursing

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          Abstract

          Background

          The early screening of frail individuals and of patients with complex care needs are challenges that countries witnessing population aging face. Homecare nurses are actors of choice in meeting these challenges, yet they need means of identifying frail and complex patients in their routine practice. The fraXity study’s aim is to fill this gap by (1) proposing frailty and complexity computation algorithms derived from the interRAI-HC; (2) assessing the predictive validity of the proposed indices with respect to adverse health outcomes; and (3) identifying subgroups of the aged population for whom the early screening of frailty and complexity appears to be most relevant.

          Methods

          The study will rely on a prospective observational case-control longitudinal study. Three samples of individuals aged 65 or older living in the community will be considered: recipients of formal home care (case 1), of formal home assistance (case 2) and individuals free of formal home services (controls). All participants will receive interRAI-HC assessments at three measurement occasions, separated by six-month intervals. Baseline assessments will serve to derive frailty and complexity scores. Follow-ups will serve to assess the predictive validity of the proposed indices and to estimate the intra-individual change in frailty and complexity. Group comparisons will serve to identify subgroups of the population for whom the screening of frailty and complexity appears to be the most relevant.

          Discussion

          The expected results of the fraXity study are a) reliable computation algorithms for frailty and complexity scores derived from the interRAI-HC and b) clinical assessment protocols for use by homecare nurses. These outcomes should contribute to outfitting key actors of the health system with means of enhancing their part in a collective endeavor targeting the best care and quality of life for aged citizens.

          Trial registration

          ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03883425, registered on March 20, 2019.

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          Most cited references24

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          Reliability of the interRAI suite of assessment instruments: a 12-country study of an integrated health information system

          Background A multi-domain suite of instruments has been developed by the interRAI research collaborative to support assessment and care planning in mental health, aged care and disability services. Each assessment instrument comprises items common to other instruments and specialized items exclusive to that instrument. This study examined the reliability of the items from five instruments supporting home care, long term care, mental health, palliative care and post-acute care. Methods Paired assessments on 783 individuals across 12 nations were completed within 72 hours of each other by trained assessors who were blinded to the others' assessment. Reliability was tested using weighted kappa coefficients. Results The overall kappa mean value for 161 items which are common to 2 or more instruments was 0.75. The kappa mean value for specialized items varied among instruments from 0.63 to 0.73. Over 60% of items scored greater than 0.70. Conclusion The vast majority of items exceeded standard cut-offs for acceptable reliability, with only modest variation among instruments. The overall performance of these instruments showed that the interRAI suite has substantial reliability according to conventional cut-offs for interpreting the kappa statistic. The results indicate that interRAI items retain reliability when used across care settings, paving the way for cross domain application of the instruments as part of an integrated health information system.
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            Comprehensive clinical assessment in community setting: applicability of the MDS-HC.

            To describe the results of an international trial of the home care version of the MDS assessment and problem identification system (the MDS-HC), including reliability estimates, a comparison of MDS-HC reliabilities with reliabilities of the same items in the MDS 2.0 nursing home assessment instrument, and an examination of the types of problems found in home care clients using the MDS-HC. Independent, dual assessment of clients of home-care agencies by trained clinicians using a draft of the MDS-HC, with additional descriptive data regarding problem profiles for home care clients. Reliability data from dual assessments of 241 randomly selected clients of home care agencies in five countries, all of whom volunteered to test the MDS-HC. Also included are an expanded sample of 780 home care assessments from these countries and 187 dually assessed residents from 21 nursing homes in the United States. The array of MDS-HC assessment items included measures in the following areas: personal items, cognitive patterns, communication/hearing, vision, mood and behavior, social functioning, informal support services, physical functioning, continence, disease diagnoses health conditions and preventive health measures, nutrition/hydration, dental status, skin condition, environmental assessment, service utilization, and medications. Forty-seven percent of the functional, health status, social environment, and service items in the MDS-HC were taken from the MDS 2.0 for nursing homes. For this item set, it is estimated that the average weighted Kappa is .74 for the MDS-HC and .75 for the MDS 2.0. Similarly, high reliability values were found for items newly introduced in the MDS-HC (weighted Kappa = .70). Descriptive findings also characterize the problems of home care clients, with subanalyses within cognitive performance levels. Findings indicate that the core set of items in the MDS 2.0 work equally well in community and nursing home settings. New items are highly reliable. In tandem, these instruments can be used within the international community, assisting and planning care for older adults within a broad spectrum of service settings, including nursing homes and home care programs. With this community-based, second-generation problem and care plan-driven assessment instrument, disability assessment can be performed consistently across the world.
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              Measuring population ageing: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

              Summary Background Traditional metrics for population health ageing tend not to differentiate between extending life expectancy and adding healthy years. A population ageing metric that reflects both longevity and health status, incorporates a comprehensive range of diseases, and allows for comparisons across countries and time is required to understand the progression of ageing and to inform policies. Methods Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017, we developed a metric that reflects age-related morbidity and mortality at the population level. First, we identified a set of age-related diseases, defined as diseases with incidence rates among the adult population increasing quadratically with age, and measured their age-related burden, defined as the sum of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of these diseases among adults. Second, we estimated age-standardised age-related health burden across 195 countries between 1990 and 2017. Using global average 65-year-olds as the reference population, we calculated the equivalent age in terms of age-related disease burden for all countries. Third, we analysed how the changes in age-related burden during the study period relate to different factors with a decomposition analysis. Finally, we describe how countries with similar levels of overall age-related burden experience different onsets of ageing. We represent the uncertainty of our estimates by calculating uncertainty intervals (UI) from 1000 draw-level estimates for each disease, country, year, and age. Findings 92 diseases were identified as age related, accounting for 51·3% (95% UI 48·5–53·9) of all global burden among adults in 2017. Across the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), the rate of age-related burden ranged from 137·8 DALYs (128·9–148·3) per 1000 adults in high SDI countries to 265·9 DALYs (251·0–280·1) in low SDI countries. The equivalent age to average 65-year-olds globally spanned from 76·1 years (75·6–76·7) in Japan to 45·6 years (42·6–48·2) in Papua New Guinea. Age-standardised age-related disease rates have decreased over time across all SDI levels and regions between 1990 and 2017, mainly due to decreases in age-related case fatality and disease severity. Even among countries with similar age-standardised death rates, large differences in the onset and patterns of accumulating age-related burden exist. Interpretation The new metric facilitates the shift from thinking not just about chronological age but the health status and disease severity of ageing populations. Our findings could provide inputs into policymaking by identifying key drivers of variation in the ageing burden and resources required for addressing the burden. Funding National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +41-0-22-388-56-12 , catherine.ludwig@hesge.ch
                catherine.busnel@imad-ge.ch
                Journal
                BMC Geriatr
                BMC Geriatr
                BMC Geriatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2318
                5 August 2019
                5 August 2019
                2019
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Geneva School of Health Sciences, HES-SO, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Avenue de Champel 47, 1206 Geneva, Switzerland
                [2 ]Geneva Institution for Homecare and Assistance (imad), Avenue du Cardinal Mermillod 36, 1227 Carouge, Switzerland
                Article
                1230
                10.1186/s12877-019-1230-z
                6683486
                31382880
                71f33c27-1c83-4e7f-973b-accffdcc6bc4
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (CH)
                Award ID: 10001C_179453 / 1
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Study Protocol
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Geriatric medicine
                frailty,complexity,standardized geriatric assessment,home care,nursing
                Geriatric medicine
                frailty, complexity, standardized geriatric assessment, home care, nursing

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