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      Environment not dispersal limitation drives clonal composition of Arctic Daphnia in a recently deglaciated area

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          Abstract

          One of the most prominent manifestations of the ongoing climate warming is the retreat of glaciers and ice sheets around the world. Retreating glaciers result in the formation of new ponds and lakes, which are available for colonization. The gradual appearance of these new habitat patches allows us to determine to what extent the composition of asexual Daphnia (water flea) populations is affected by environmental drivers vs. dispersal limitation. Here, we used a landscape genetics approach to assess the processes structuring the clonal composition of species in the D. pulex species complex that have colonized periglacial habitats created by ice-sheet retreat in western Greenland. We analysed 61 populations from a young (<50 years) and an old cluster (>150 years) of lakes and ponds. We identified 42 asexual clones that varied widely in spatial distribution. Beta-diversity was higher among older than among younger systems. Lineage sorting by the environment explained 14% of the variation in clonal composition whereas the pure effect of geographical distance was very small and statistically insignificant ( R adj 2 = 0.010 , P = 0.085). Dispersal limitation did not seem important, even among young habitat patches. The observation of several tens of clones colonizing the area combined with environmentally driven clonal composition of populations illustrates that population assembly of asexual species in the Arctic is structured by environmental gradients reflecting differences in the ecology of clones.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          9214478
          2614
          Mol Ecol
          Mol. Ecol.
          Molecular ecology
          0962-1083
          1365-294X
          15 December 2017
          18 November 2016
          December 2016
          20 December 2017
          : 25
          : 23
          : 5830-5842
          Affiliations
          [* ]Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, KU Leuven, Ch. Deberiotstraat 32, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium
          []Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences (CNCS), Mekelle University, P.O.Box: 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia
          []Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, Geraardsbergen 9500, Belgium
          [§ ]Department of Biology, Program in Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73071, USA
          []Lake and Glacier Research Group, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, Innsbruck, Austria
          [** ]Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, Silkeborg 8600, Denmark
          [†† ]Department of Ecology and Environmental Management, CURE-Faculty of Sciences, University of the Republic (Uruguay), Maldonado 20000, Uruguay
          [‡‡ ]Cologne Biocenter, Institute for Zoology, General Ecology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 47b, D-50674, Köln, Germany
          [§§ ]Biological Oceanography Department, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Seestrasse 15, D-18119, Rostock, Germany
          [¶¶ ]Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research (SDC), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Zhongguancun South 1st Alley, Haidian District, 100190, Beijing, China
          Author notes
          Correspondence: Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie, Fax: +3216324575; hilinatsegazeabe@ 123456yahoo.co.uk
          Article
          PMC5737836 PMC5737836 5737836 ems75356
          10.1111/mec.13843
          5737836
          27662259
          71f75866-6b9e-405d-b851-03f92fd9ea60
          History
          Categories
          Article

          climate change,colonization,founder effect,isolation-by-colonization,isolation-by-dispersal limitation,landscape genetics

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