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      Neutrophil-Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Renal Function after Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The value of neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a novel biomarker in the detection of acute renal failure in children after cardiac surgery, has been highlighted in previous studies. The incidence of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) increases, which may possibly result in increased incidences of contrast nephropathy, its potentially serious complication. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess prospectively NGAL in patients undergoing elective PCI in relation to serum creatinine. Methods: NGAL was assessed in the serum and urine using commercially available kits. Results: We measured urinary and serum NGAL before, and 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after PCI. We found a significant rise in serum NGAL 2 and 4 h after PCI, and a rise in urinary NGAL 4 and 12 h after PCI. Before PCI, serum NGAL was significantly associated with serum creatinine, urea, urinary NGAL, hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, age and presence of diabetes. In multivariate analysis, serum creatinine was the only predictor of serum NGAL. Serum NGAL 2 h after PCI correlated with serum creatinine, duration of PCI, HbA1c, hematocrit, hemoglobin and urinary NGAL. In multivariate analysis, the only predictors of serum NGAL 2 h after PCI were serum creatinine, time of PCI and HbA1c. Serum NGAL before PCI was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics. Conclusions: NGAL may represent a sensitive early biomarker of renal impairment after PCI. Serum creatinine, duration of PCI, but not type and amount of contrast agent, and appropriate treatment of diabetes, reflected by HbA1c, predict a rise in serum NGAL and kidney function following PCI.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Molecular characterization and pattern of tissue expression of the gene for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from humans.

          Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a 25-kDa lipocalin first identified as a protein stored in specific granules of the human neutrophil. The protein is believed to bind small lipophilic substances such as bacterial derived formylpeptides and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and might function as a modulator of inflammation. To characterize the regulation of NGAL further, we have cloned and sequenced a 5869-bp region of the NGAL gene including 1695 bp of the 5' nontranscribed region and a 3696-bp coding region encompassing seven exons and six introns. The transcriptional start sites were identified by an RNase protection assay. The NGAL gene is highly homologous to the mouse gene 24p3. NGAL was expressed in bone marrow and in tissues that are prone to exposure to microorganisms. Potential cis-acting elements were identified in the promoter region of the NGAL gene by computer analysis and include binding sites for CTF/CBP, the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1 and PU.1, and the LPS-inducible factor NF-kappa B.
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            Contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

            The aim of this research was to assess the incidence, clinical predictors, and outcome of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Contrast-induced nephropathy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after PCI. Patients undergoing primary PCI may be at higher risk of CIN because of hemodynamic instability and unfeasibility of adequate prophylaxis. In 208 consecutive AMI patients undergoing primary PCI, we measured serum creatinine concentration (Cr) at baseline and each day for the following three days. Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as a rise in Cr >0.5 mg/dl. Overall, CIN occurred in 40 (19%) patients. Of the 160 patients with baseline Cr clearance >/=60 ml/min, only 21 (13%) developed CIN, whereas it occurred in 19 (40%) of those with Cr clearance 75 years (odds ratio [OR] 5.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98 to 14.05; p = 0.0009), anterior infarction (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.88 to 5.34; p = 0.09), time-to-reperfusion >6 h (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.16; p = 0.04), contrast agent volume >300 ml (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.17 to 6.68; p = 0.02) and use of intraaortic balloon (OR 15.51, 95% CI 4.65 to 51.64; p < 0.0001) were independent correlates of CIN. Patients developing CIN had longer hospital stay (13 +/- 7 days vs. 8 +/- 3 days; p < 0.001), more complicated clinical course, and significantly higher mortality rate (31% vs. 0.6%; p < 0.001). Contrast-induced nephropathy frequently complicates primary PCI, even in patients with normal renal function. It is associated with higher in-hospital complication rate and mortality. Thus, preventive strategies are needed, particularly in high-risk patients.
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              Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: A Novel Early Urinary Biomarker for Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity

              Background: Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, but the risk of nephrotoxicity frequently hinders the use of higher doses to maximize its antineoplastic effects. The lack of early biomarkers has impaired our ability to initiate potential therapeutic or preventive interventions in cisplatin nephrotoxicity in a timely manner. In this study, we have explored the expression and urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic injury. Methods: Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injections of 20 mg/kg (high dose) or 5 mg/kg (low dose) cisplatin. The expression of NGAL was measured in the kidney and urine by Western analysis and immunofluorescence, and compared to changes in serum creatinine and urinary N-acetyl-β- D -glucosaminidase (NAG). Results: Cisplatin resulted in tubule cell necrosis and apoptosis following the high dose, but not the low dose. By Western analysis, NGAL protein was rapidly induced in the kidney within 3 h of high-dose cisplatin. By immunofluorescence, NGAL was induced predominantly in proximal tubule cells in a punctate cytoplasmic distribution, reminiscent of a secreted protein. NGAL was easily detected in the urine by Western analysis within 3 h of cisplatin administration in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. By comparison, changes in urinary NAG or serum creatinine were not evident until 96 h after cisplatin. Using defined concentrations of purified recombinant NGAL, urinary NGAL excretion following cisplatin administration was quantified to be in the 20–80 ng/ml range. Conclusion: The results indicate that NGAL represents an early and quantitative urinary biomarker for cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                July 2006
                19 July 2006
                : 26
                : 3
                : 287-292
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInvasive Cardiology and bNephrology and Transplantation, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
                Article
                93961 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:287–292
                10.1159/000093961
                16772710
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 15, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93961
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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