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      Outcome of Insertable Cardiac Monitors in Symptomatic Patients with Brugada Syndrome at Low Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death

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          Abstract

          Introduction: There is limited data on the experience with insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) in patients with Brugada syndrome. Objective: To evaluate the outcome of ICM in symptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome who are at suspected low risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods: We conducted a prospective single-center cohort study including all symptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome who received an ICM (Reveal LINQ) between July 2014 and October 2019. The main indication for monitoring was to exclude ventricular arrhythmias as the cause of symptoms and to establish a symptom-rhythm relationship. Results: A total of 20 patients (mean age, 39 ± 12 years; 55% male) received an ICM during the study period. Nine patients (45%) had a history of syncope (presumed nonarrhythmogenic), and 5 patients had a recent syncope (<6 months). During a median follow-up of 32 months (interquartile range, 11–36 months), 3 patients (15%) experienced an episode of nonsustained ventricular arrhythmia. No patient died suddenly or experienced a sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and no patient had a recurrence of syncope. Overall, 17 patients (85%) experienced symptoms during follow-up, of whom 10 patients had an ICM-detected arrhythmia. In 4 patients (20%), the ICM-detected arrhythmia was an actionable event. ICM-guided management included antiarrhythmic drug therapy for symptomatic ectopic beats ( n = 3), pulmonary vein isolation, and oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation ( n = 1), electrophysiological study for risk stratification ( n = 1), and pacemaker implantation for atrioventricular block ( n = 1). Conclusions: An ICM can be used to exclude ventricular arrhythmias in symptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome at low risk of SCD. Furthermore, an ICM-detected arrhythmia changed clinical management in 20% of patients.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Long-term prognosis of patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome: Results from the FINGER Brugada Syndrome Registry.

          Brugada syndrome is characterized by ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Fundamental questions remain on the best strategy for assessing the real disease-associated arrhythmic risk, especially in asymptomatic patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognosis and risk factors of SCD in Brugada syndrome patients in the FINGER (France, Italy, Netherlands, Germany) Brugada syndrome registry. Patients were recruited in 11 tertiary centers in 4 European countries. Inclusion criteria consisted of a type 1 ECG present either at baseline or after drug challenge, after exclusion of diseases that mimic Brugada syndrome. The registry included 1029 consecutive individuals (745 men; 72%) with a median age of 45 (35 to 55) years. Diagnosis was based on (1) aborted SCD (6%); (2) syncope, otherwise unexplained (30%); and (3) asymptomatic patients (64%). During a median follow-up of 31.9 (14 to 54.4) months, 51 cardiac events (5%) occurred (44 patients experienced appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks, and 7 died suddenly). The cardiac event rate per year was 7.7% in patients with aborted SCD, 1.9% in patients with syncope, and 0.5% in asymptomatic patients. Symptoms and spontaneous type 1 ECG were predictors of arrhythmic events, whereas gender, familial history of SCD, inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmias during electrophysiological study, and the presence of an SCN5A mutation were not predictive of arrhythmic events. In the largest series of Brugada syndrome patients thus far, event rates in asymptomatic patients were low. Inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and family history of SCD were not predictors of cardiac events.
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            Risk stratification in Brugada syndrome: results of the PRELUDE (PRogrammed ELectrical stimUlation preDictive valuE) registry.

            The PRELUDE (PRogrammed ELectrical stimUlation preDictive valuE) prospective registry was designed to assess the predictive accuracy of sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VTs/VF) inducibility and to identify additional predictors of arrhythmic events in Brugada syndrome patients without history of VT/VF. Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Even though its value has been questioned, inducibility of VTs/VF is widely used to select candidates to receive a prophylactic implantable defibrillator, and its accuracy has never been addressed in prospective studies with homogeneous enrolling criteria. Patients with a spontaneous or drug-induced type I electrocardiogram (ECG) and without history of cardiac arrest were enrolled. The registry included 308 consecutive individuals (247 men, 80%; median age 44 years, range 18 to 72 years). Programmed electrical stimulation was performed at enrollment, and patients were followed-up every 6 months. During a median follow-up of 34 months, 14 arrhythmic events (4.5%) occurred (13 appropriate shocks of the implantable defibrillator, and 1 cardiac arrest). Programmed electrical stimulation performed with a uniform and pre-specified protocol induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 40% of patients: arrhythmia inducibility was not a predictor of events at follow-up (9 of 14 events occurred in noninducible patients). History of syncope and spontaneous type I ECG (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.20), ventricular refractory period <200 ms (HR: 3.91), and QRS fragmentation (HR: 4.94) were significant predictors of arrhythmias. Our data show that VT/VF inducibility is unable to identify high-risk patients, whereas the presence of a spontaneous type I ECG, history of syncope, ventricular effective refractory period <200 ms, and QRS fragmentation seem useful to identify candidates for prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Programmed Ventricular Stimulation for Risk Stratification in the Brugada Syndrome: A Pooled Analysis.

              The role of programmed ventricular stimulation in identifying patients with Brugada syndrome at the highest risk for sudden death is uncertain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2020
                July 2020
                22 April 2020
                : 145
                : 7
                : 413-420
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                bDepartment of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *Dr. Sing-Chien Yap, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, dr. Molewaterplein 40, NL–3015 GD, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), s.c.yap@erasmusmc.nl
                Article
                507075 Cardiology 2020;145:413–420
                10.1159/000507075
                7592947
                32320984
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia: Research Article

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