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      Cytochrome P4504A inhibitors attenuate the exaggerated natriuretic response to volume expansion in thyroidectomized rats


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          Thyroidectomy augments the natriuretic response to volume expansion; however, the mechanism remains unknown. This study assessed the role of 20‐hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20‐HETE) in the natriuretic response to an acute volume expansion in hypothyroid rats. Urine flow (1.9‐fold), sodium excretion (2.4‐fold), fractional sodium excretion (3.8‐fold), and distal delivery of sodium (4.1‐fold) increased to a greater extent in thyroidectomized rats (TX) than in sham‐operated controls (SHAM) following i.v. infusion of isotonic saline (5% body weight) over 60 min. This was associated with inhibition of both proximal and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium. Administration of two mechanistic and chemical dissimilar inhibitors of the synthesis of 20‐HETE, 1‐aminobenzotriazole (ABT), and N‐hydroxy‐N’‐(‐4‐butyl‐2‐methylphenyl)formamidine (HET0016) decreased the natriuretic response in TX rats. Glomerular filtration rate was lower in TX than in SHAM rats and was not altered by the CYP4A inhibitors. The expression, intrarenal distribution, and the formation of 20‐HETE and expoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid were similar in the cortex and medulla of SHAM and TX rats. These results suggest that CYP4A‐derived metabolites of arachidonic acid play an important role in the enhanced natriuretic response to volume expansion in hypothyroid rats even though TX did not alter the expression or activity of these enzymes.


          Thyroidectomy increases the natriuretic response to volume expansion; however, the mechanism remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that P‐450 metabolites of arachidonic acid contribute to the enhanced natriuretic response to an acute sodium load in hypothyroid rats. Our results indicate that inhibition of the formation of 20‐HETE (a CYP4A‐ arachidonic acid metabolite) blunts the enhanced natriuretic response to volume expansion in thyroidectomized animals by enhancing sodium transport in the distal nephron.

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          Thyroid dysfunction and kidney disease.

          Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for an adequate growth and development of the kidney. Conversely, the kidney is not only an organ for metabolism and elimination of TH, but also a target organ of some of the iodothyronines' actions. Thyroid dysfunction causes remarkable changes in glomerular and tubular functions and electrolyte and water homeostasis. Hypothyroidism is accompanied by a decrease in glomerular filtration, hyponatremia, and an alteration of the ability for water excretion. Excessive levels of TH generate an increase in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. Renal disease, in turn, leads to significant changes in thyroid function. The association of different types of glomerulopathies with both hyper- and hypofunction of the thyroid has been reported. Less frequently, tubulointerstitial disease has been associated with functional thyroid disorders. Nephrotic syndrome is accompanied by changes in the concentrations of TH due primarily to loss of protein in the urine. Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease are accompanied by notable effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. The secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) is impaired in uremia. Contrary to other non-thyroidal chronic disease, in uraemic patients it is not unusual to observe the sick euthyroid syndrome with low serum triodothyronine (T(3)) without elevation of reverse T(3) (rT(3)). Some authors have reported associations between thyroid cancer and kidney tumors and each of these organs can develop metastases into the other. Finally, data from recent research suggest that TH, especially T(3), can be considered as a marker for survival in patients with kidney disease.
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            The renal manifestations of thyroid disease.

            Thyroid hormones influence renal development, kidney structure, renal hemodynamics, GFR, the function of many transport systems along the nephron, and sodium and water homeostasis. These effects of thyroid hormone are in part due to direct renal actions and in part are mediated by cardiovascular and systemic hemodynamic effects that influence kidney function. As a consequence, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism associate with clinically important alterations in kidney function and have relevance to its assessment. Disorders of thyroid function have also been linked to development of immune-mediated glomerular injury, and alterations in thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone testing occur in patients with kidney disease.
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              Vascular and renal function in experimental thyroid disorders.

              This review focuses on the effects of thyroid hormones in vascular and renal systems. Special emphasis is given to the mechanisms by which thyroid hormones affect the regulation of body fluids, vascular resistance and, ultimately, blood pressure. Vascular function is markedly affected by thyroid hormones that produce changes in vascular reactivity and endothelial function in hyper- and hypothyroidism. The hypothyroid state is accompanied by a marked decrease in sensitivity to vasoconstrictors, especially to sympathetic agonists, alteration that may play a role in the reduced blood pressure of hypothyroid rats, as well as in the preventive effects of hypothyroidism on experimental hypertension. Moreover, in hypothyroid rats, the endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide donors vasodilation is reduced. Conversely, the vessels from hyperthyroid rats showed an increased endothelium-dependent responsiveness that may be secondary to the shear-stress induced by the hyperdynamic circulation, and that may contribute to the reduced vascular resistance characteristic of this disease. Thyroid hormones also have important effects in the kidney, affecting renal growth, renal haemodynamics, and salt and water metabolism. In hyperthyroidism, there is a resetting of the pressure-natriuresis relationship related to hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to the arterial hypertension associated with this endocrine disease. Moreover, thyroid hormones affect the development and/or maintenance of various forms of arterial hypertension. This review also describes recent advances in our understanding of thyroid hormone action on nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function and in the long-term control of blood pressure.

                Author and article information

                Physiol Rep
                Physiol Rep
                Physiological Reports
                Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
                June 2014
                11 June 2014
                : 2
                : 6
                : e12040
                [1 ]Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinológicas “Dr. César Bergadá” (CEDIE), CONICET – FEI – División de Endocrinología, Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi
                Author notes
                CorrespondenceSusana Nowicki, Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinólogicas Dr. Cesar Bergada, CEDIE‐CONICET, Gallo 1360, C1425EFD Buenos Aires, Argentina.Tel: +54‐11‐4963‐5931 ext 202Fax: +54‐11‐4963‐5930E‐mail: snowicki@ 123456cedie.org.ar and nowickisusana@ 123456hotmail.com
                © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 14 February 2014
                : 13 May 2014
                : 14 May 2014
                Original Research

                20‐hete,cytochrome p450‐4a,eicosanoids,hypothyroidism,sodium excretion


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