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      Dexmedetomidine reverses MTX-induced neurotoxicity and inflammation in hippocampal HT22 cell lines via NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy

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          The incidence of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) has attracted massive attention. Some studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX). Here, alterations in nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4)-mediated ferritinophagy were investigated as the possible causes of DEX’s neuroprotection of HT22 cells against methotrexate (MTX)-induced neurotoxicity. We used various concentrations of DEX and NCOA4-siRNA to treat MTX-induced neurotoxicity and inflammation in HT22 cells. The biomarkers of HT22 cells viability, apoptosis and inflammatory were tested. The expression of ferritinophagy markers were detected in the HT22 cells by using western blot and Immunofluorescence. We found that 10 and 50 ng/mL of DEX alleviated MTX-induced hippocampal neuronal inflammatory injuries. Meanwhile, DEX also reversed MTX-induced iron and ROS overproduction. Increasing DEX concentrations caused significant falls in the expression of ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1). DEX also increased vital ferritinophagy markers, NCOA4 and LC3II. NCOA4-siRNA transfection annulled the neuroprotective effects of DEX on MTX-induced inflammation in HT22 cells. Additionally, because NCOA4-siRNA disrupted ferritinophagy, DEX’s inhibitory impact on MTX-induced iron and ROS overproduction in HT22 cells was also annihilated. DEX weakened MTX-provoked neurontoxicity in HT22 cells, possibly by improving NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy. Our discoveries present further mechanisms for understanding the protective effects of DEX against MTX-induced cognitive impairment.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Iron accumulation in senescent cells is coupled with impaired ferritinophagy and inhibition of ferroptosis

          Cellular senescence is characterised by the irreversible arrest of proliferation, a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype and evasion of programmed cell death mechanisms. We report that senescence alters cellular iron acquisition and storage and also impedes iron-mediated cell death pathways. Senescent cells, regardless of stimuli (irradiation, replicative or oncogenic), accumulate vast amounts of intracellular iron (up to 30-fold) with concomitant changes in the levels of iron homeostasis proteins. For instance, ferritin (iron storage) levels provided a robust biomarker of cellular senescence, for associated iron accumulation and for resistance to iron-induced toxicity. Cellular senescence preceded iron accumulation and was not perturbed by sustained iron chelation (deferiprone). Iron accumulation in senescent cells was driven by impaired ferritinophagy, a lysosomal process that promotes ferritin degradation and ferroptosis. Lysosomal dysfunction in senescent cells was confirmed through several markers, including the build-up of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) in autophagosomes. Impaired ferritin degradation explains the iron accumulation phenotype of senescent cells, whereby iron is effectively trapped in ferritin creating a perceived cellular deficiency. Accordingly, senescent cells were highly resistant to ferroptosis. Promoting ferritin degradation by using the autophagy activator rapamycin averted the iron accumulation phenotype of senescent cells, preventing the increase of TfR1, ferritin and intracellular iron, but failed to re-sensitize these cells to ferroptosis. Finally, the enrichment of senescent cells in mouse ageing hepatic tissue was found to accompany iron accumulation, an elevation in ferritin and mirrored our observations using cultured senescent cells.
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            Involvement of cigarette smoke-induced epithelial cell ferroptosis in COPD pathogenesis

            Ferroptosis is a necrotic form of regulated cell death (RCD) mediated by phospholipid peroxidation in association with free iron-mediated Fenton reactions. Disrupted iron homeostasis resulting in excessive oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we demonstrate the involvement of ferroptosis in COPD pathogenesis. Our in vivo and in vitro models show labile iron accumulation and enhanced lipid peroxidation with concomitant non-apoptotic cell death during cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, which are negatively regulated by GPx4 activity. Treatment with deferoxamine and ferrostatin-1, in addition to GPx4 knockdown, illuminate the role of ferroptosis in CS-treated lung epithelial cells. NCOA4-mediated ferritin selective autophagy (ferritinophagy) is initiated during ferritin degradation in response to CS treatment. CS exposure models, using both GPx4-deficient and overexpressing mice, clarify the pivotal role of GPx4-regulated cell death during COPD. These findings support a role for cigarette smoke-induced ferroptosis in the pathogenesis of COPD.
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              Activation of ferritinophagy is required for the RNA-binding protein ELAVL1/HuR to regulate ferroptosis in hepatic stellate cells

              Ferroptosis is a recently recognized form of regulated cell death that is characterized by lipid peroxidation. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating ferroptosis are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the RNA-binding protein ELAVL1/HuR plays a crucial role in regulating ferroptosis in liver fibrosis. Upon exposure to ferroptosis-inducing compounds, ELAVL1 protein expression was remarkably increased through the inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ELAVL1 siRNA led to ferroptosis resistance, whereas ELAVL1 plasmid contributed to classical ferroptotic events. Interestingly, upregulated ELAVL1 expression also appeared to increase autophagosome generation and macroautophagic/autophagic flux, which was the underlying mechanism for ELAVL1-enhanced ferroptosis. Autophagy depletion completely impaired ELAVL1-mediated ferroptotic events, whereas autophagy induction showed a synergistic effect with ELAVL1. Importantly, ELAVL1 promoted autophagy activation via binding to the AU-rich elements within the F3 of the 3ʹ-untranslated region of BECN1/Beclin1 mRNA. The internal deletion of the F3 region abrogated the ELAVL1-mediated BECN1 mRNA stability, and, in turn, prevented ELAVL1-enhanced ferroptosis. In mice, treatment with sorafenib alleviated murine liver fibrosis by inducing hepatic stellate cell (HSC) ferroptosis. HSC-specific knockdown of ELAVL1 impaired sorafenib-induced HSC ferroptosis in murine liver fibrosis. Noteworthy, we retrospectively analyzed the effect of sorafenib on HSC ferroptosis in advanced fibrotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib monotherapy. Attractively, ELAVL1 upregulation, ferritinophagy activation, and ferroptosis induction occurred in primary human HSCs from the collected human liver tissue. Overall, these results reveal novel molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of ferroptosis, and also identify ELAVL1-autophagy-dependent ferroptosis as a potential target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Abbreviations: ACTA2/alpha-SMA: actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta; ACTB/beta-actin: actin beta; ARE: AU-rich element; ATG: autophagy related; BDL: bile duct ligation; BECN1: beclin 1; BSO: buthionine sulfoximine; COL1A1: collagen type I alpha 1 chain; ELAVL1/HuR: ELAV like RNA binding protein 1; FDA: fluorescein diacetate; FTH1: ferritin heavy chain 1; GOT1/AST: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1; GPT/ALT: glutamic–pyruvic transaminase; GPX4: glutathione peroxidase 4; GSH: glutathione; HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma; HSC: hepatic stellate cell; LCM: laser capture microdissection; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MDA: malondialdehydep; NCOA4: nuclear receptor coactivator 4; PTGS2: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TBIL: total bilirubin; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TGFB1: trasforming growth factor beta 1; UTR: untranslated region; VA-Lip- ELAVL1 -siRNA: vitamin A-coupled liposomes carrying ELAVL1 -siRNA.

                Author and article information

                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Impact Journals
                28 February 2021
                25 February 2021
                : 13
                : 4
                : 6182-6193
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei, China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430060, China
                [3 ]Department of Pain, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei, China
                [4 ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory for Tumor Genetics and Regenerative Medicine, The Head and Neurocenter, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Hamburg 20246, Germany
                Author notes

                Equal contribution

                Correspondence to: Zhongyuan Xia; email: xiazhongyuan2005@aliyun.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5807-9554
                Correspondence to: Jishi Ye; email: yee1989@whu.edu.cn
                202626 202626
                Copyright: © 2021 Chen et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Paper

                Cell biology

                dexmedetomidine, ncoa4, ferritinophagy, methotrexate, neuroinflammation


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