0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Comparative Analysis of Caspase Activation and Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells and Renal Cell Carcinomas

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is limited by its resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This may occur, in part, from resistance to apoptosis. The role of caspase activation in apoptosis resistance in treated RCCs was investigated. Methods: Two human RCC cell lines (ACHN and SN12K1) and renal tubular epithelial cells (HK2) were treated with 5-fluorouracil (0.2–20 µg/ml) or cisplatin (1–100 µ M). Activation of caspase-3 and -2 was analysed and compared with levels of apoptosis. Caspase function was analysed using pan-caspase inhibition (z-VAD-fmk) and caspase-2 inhibition (z-VDVAD-fmk). Results: RCC apoptosis was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in HK2s after treatment, confirming their chemoresistance. Pro-caspase-3 (32 kDa) was detected in all cell lines. Cleaved caspase-3 (19 kDa) was not detected by Western immunoblots in treated RCCs and only minimal activated caspase-3 was detected in treated RCCs using immunohistochemistry. All cells had pro-caspase-2 (48 kDa) and the activated form (33 kDa) appeared in all treated cells. Caspase inhibition caused a reduction in, but not negation of, therapy-induced apoptosis in HK2s and RCCs (p < 0.05 for HK2s and ACHN cells), indicating that a caspase activation pathway must occur in RCC apoptosis but this pathway does not act via caspase-3 cleavage. Inhibition of caspase-2 reduced apoptosis only in HK2s, indicating that the activated caspase-2, identified in treated RCCs, was not responsible for their apoptosis induction. Conclusion: Specific differences in caspase-3 and -2 activation were identified in renal tubular epithelium and RCCs after chemotherapy. Identification of RCC-specific caspase inactivation or redundancy may explain, in part, the resistance of RCCs to cancer therapies and may be useful in targeting apoptotic pathways to overcome RCC resistance to treatment.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 23

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Requirement for caspase-2 in stress-induced apoptosis before mitochondrial permeabilization.

          A current view is that cytotoxic stress, such as DNA damage, induces apoptosis by regulating the permeability of mitochondria. Mitochondria sequester several proteins that, if released, kill by activating caspases, the proteases that disassemble the cell. Cytokines activate caspases in a different way, by assembling receptor complexes that activate caspases directly; in this case, the subsequent mitochondrial permeabilization accelerates cell disassembly by amplifying caspase activity. We found that cytotoxic stress causes activation of caspase-2, and that this caspase is required for the permeabilization of mitochondria. Therefore, we argue that cytokine-induced and stress-induced apoptosis act through conceptually similar pathways in which mitochondria are amplifiers of caspase activity rather than initiators of caspase activation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Mitochondrial Release of Caspase-2 and -9 during the Apoptotic Process

            The barrier function of mitochondrial membranes is perturbed early during the apoptotic process. Here we show that the mitochondria contain a caspase-like enzymatic activity cleaving the caspase substrate Z-VAD.afc, in addition to three biological activities previously suggested to participate in the apoptotic process: (a) cytochrome c; (b) an apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) which causes isolated nuclei to undergo apoptosis in vitro; and (c) a DNAse activity. All of these factors, which are biochemically distinct, are released upon opening of the permeability transition (PT) pore in a coordinate, Bcl-2–inhibitable fashion. Caspase inhibitors fully neutralize the Z-VAD.afc–cleaving activity, have a limited effect on the AIF activity, and have no effect at all on the DNase activities. Purification of proteins reacting with the biotinylated caspase substrate Z-VAD, immunodetection, and immunodepletion experiments reveal the presence of procaspase-2 and -9 in mitochondria. Upon induction of PT pore opening, these procaspases are released from purified mitochondria and become activated. Similarly, upon induction of apoptosis, both procaspases redistribute from the mitochondrion to the cytosol and are processed to generate enzymatically active caspases. This redistribution is inhibited by Bcl-2. Recombinant caspase-2 and -9 suffice to provoke full-blown apoptosis upon microinjection into cells. Altogether, these data suggest that caspase-2 and -9 zymogens are essentially localized in mitochondria and that the disruption of the outer mitochondrial membrane occurring early during apoptosis may be critical for their subcellular redistribution and activation.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Serial killers: ordering caspase activation events in apoptosis.

              Caspases participate in the molecular control of apoptosis in several guises; as triggers of the death machinery, as regulatory elements within it, and ultimately as a subset of the effector elements of the machinery itself. The mammalian caspase family is steadily growing and currently contains 14 members. At present, it is unclear whether all of these proteases participate in apoptosis. Thus, current research in this area is focused upon establishing the repertoire and order of caspase activation events that occur during the signalling and demolition phases of cell death. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that proximal caspase activation events are typically initiated by molecules that promote caspase aggregation. As expected, distal caspase activation events are likely to be controlled by caspases activated earlier in the cascade. However, recent data has cast doubt upon the functional demarcation of caspases into signalling (upstream) and effector (downstream) roles based upon their prodomain lengths. In particular, caspase-3 may perform an important role in propagating the caspase cascade, in addition to its role as an effector caspase within the death programme. Here, we discuss the apoptosis-associated caspase cascade and the hierarchy of caspase activation events within it.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2005
                April 2005
                10 February 2005
                : 99
                : 4
                : e112-e120
                Affiliations
                aMolecular and Cellular Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, and Departments of bUrology/Renal Transplantation and cRenal Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Australia
                Article
                83926 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;99:e112–e120
                10.1159/000083926
                15711100
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 34, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/83926
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Comments

                Comment on this article