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      Mitochondrial Protein Turnover Is Critical for Granulosa Cell Proliferation and Differentiation in Antral Follicles


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          Granulosa cell (GC) proliferation is essential for follicular development. FSH is a key factor in GC proliferation, and a continuous supply of high levels of ATP is necessary for cell proliferation. However, genes encoding proteins of the glycolytic pathways are poorly expressed in GCs. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial gene expression and protein synthesis play a primary role in ATP production during GC proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we performed an in vivo study of GCs collected from 23-day-old mice ovaries with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) priming. It was observed that mitochondrial activity with membrane potential, expression of protein-coding genes ( Nd1-6, Cytb, Atpase6,8) and transcription-related genes ( Polrmt, Tfam, Tfb2m), copy number of mitochondrial (mt-)DNA, and protein synthesis were increased in GCs after 24 hours of eCG injection and mostly maintained elevated up to 48 hours. Therefore, we performed in vitro culture of GCs in DMEM medium supplemented with FSH, testosterone, and serum and containing different glucose concentrations with or without d-chloramphenicol (CRP) for 24 hours. GC proliferation and ATP production were observed to be independent of glucose concentration. Furthermore, FSH-induced mitochondrial activity with membrane potential, ATP content, BrdU-incorporated cell proliferation, intensity of mt-ND1 and mt-ND6 proteins, and expressions of marker genes for proliferation and differentiation were significantly decreased by CRP treatment. These results revealed the crucial role of mitochondria in the supply of ATP and the necessity of mitochondrial gene expression and protein synthesis in not only the proliferation but also the differentiation of GCs during follicular development.

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          Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta.

          The rat estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta, which differ in the C-terminal ligand binding domain and in the N-terminal transactivation domain. In this study we investigated the messenger RNA expression of both ER subtypes in rat tissues by RT-PCR and compared the ligand binding specificity of the ER subtypes. Saturation ligand binding analysis of in vitro synthesized human ER alpha and rat ER beta protein revealed a single binding component for 16 alpha-iodo-17 beta-estradiol with high affinity [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.1 nM for ER alpha protein and 0.4 nM for ER beta protein]. Most estrogenic substances or estrogenic antagonists compete with 16 alpha-[125I]iodo-17 beta-estradiol for binding to both ER subtypes in a very similar preference and degree; that is, diethylstilbestrol > hexestrol > dienestrol > 4-OH-tamoxifen > 17 beta-estradiol > coumestrol, ICI-164384 > estrone, 17 alpha-estradiol > nafoxidine, moxestrol > clomifene > estriol, 4-OH-estradiol > tamoxifen, 2-OH-estradiol, 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol, genistein for the ER alpha protein and dienestrol > 4-OH-tamoxifen > diethylstilbestrol > hexestrol > coumestrol, ICI-164384 > 17 beta-estradiol > estrone, genistein > estriol > nafoxidine, 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol > 17 alpha-estradiol, clomifene, 2-OH-estradiol > 4-OH-estradiol, tamoxifen, moxestrol for the ER beta protein. The rat tissue distribution and/or the relative level of ER alpha and ER beta expression seems to be quite different, i.e. moderate to high expression in uterus, testis, pituitary, ovary, kidney, epididymis, and adrenal for ER alpha and prostate, ovary, lung, bladder, brain, uterus, and testis for ER beta. The described differences between the ER subtypes in relative ligand binding affinity and tissue distribution could contribute to the selective action of ER agonists and antagonists in different tissues.
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            Impaired balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in Alzheimer's disease.

            Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurons. In this study, we explored the involvement of an abnormal mitochondrial dynamics by investigating the changes in the expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins in AD brain and the potential cause and consequence of these changes in neuronal cells. We found that mitochondria were redistributed away from axons in the pyramidal neurons of AD brain. Immunoblot analysis revealed that levels of DLP1 (also referred to as Drp1), OPA1, Mfn1, and Mfn2 were significantly reduced whereas levels of Fis1 were significantly increased in AD. Despite their differential effects on mitochondrial morphology, manipulations of these mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins in neuronal cells to mimic their expressional changes in AD caused a similar abnormal mitochondrial distribution pattern, such that mitochondrial density was reduced in the cell periphery of M17 cells or neuronal process of primary neurons and correlated with reduced spine density in the neurite. Interestingly, oligomeric amyloid-beta-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) caused mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes. More importantly, ADDL-induced synaptic change (i.e., loss of dendritic spine and postsynaptic density protein 95 puncta) correlated with abnormal mitochondrial distribution. DLP1 overexpression, likely through repopulation of neuronal processes with mitochondria, prevented ADDL-induced synaptic loss, suggesting that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics plays an important role in ADDL-induced synaptic abnormalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that an altered balance in mitochondrial fission and fusion is likely an important mechanism leading to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction in AD brain.
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              Oxygen sensing requires mitochondrial ROS but not oxidative phosphorylation.

              Mammalian cells detect decreases in oxygen concentrations to activate a variety of responses that help cells adapt to low oxygen levels (hypoxia). One such response is stabilization of the protein HIF-1 alpha, a component of the transcription factor HIF-1. Here we show that a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the Rieske iron-sulfur protein of mitochondrial complex III prevents the hypoxic stabilization of HIF-1 alpha protein. Fibroblasts from a patient with Leigh's syndrome, which display residual levels of electron transport activity and are incompetent in oxidative phosphorylation, stabilize HIF-1 alpha during hypoxia. The expression of glutathione peroxidase or catalase, but not superoxide dismutase 1 or 2, prevents the hypoxic stabilization of HIF-1 alpha. These findings provide genetic evidence that oxygen sensing is dependent on mitochondrial-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) but independent of oxidative phosphorylation.

                Author and article information

                J Endocr Soc
                J Endocr Soc
                Journal of the Endocrine Society
                Endocrine Society (Washington, DC )
                01 February 2019
                10 December 2018
                : 3
                : 2
                : 324-339
                [1 ]Laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi–Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan
                [2 ]Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
                [3 ]College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence:  Masayuki Shimada, PhD, Laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi–Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan. E-mail: mashimad@ 123456hiroshima-u.ac.jp .
                Copyright © 2019 Endocrine Society

                This article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial, No-Derivatives License (CC BY-NC-ND; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Funded by: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science 10.13039/501100001691
                Award ID: JP 16H05017
                Funded by: Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development 10.13039/100009619
                Award ID: 16gk0110015h0001
                Research Article
                Reproductive Biology and Sex-Based Medicine

                granulosa cells,proliferation,mitochondria,gene expression,protein synthesis


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