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      A Comparative Study of Pathology and Host Immune Response Induced by Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Experimentally Infected Chickens of Aseel and White Leghorn Breeds

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          Abstract

          Indigenous breeds of young chickens in India are believed to be resistant to the classical strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). However, the mechanism underlying this resistance is obscure. Innate immunity is a key factor in defining the clinical course and pathology of microbial infections. The present study is aimed to compare the pathology of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) and immunological host response in experimentally infected - vaccinated and unvaccinated indigenous Aseel and commercial White Leghorn chickens. The viral loads and innate immune gene expression profiles of MDA-5, Mx, IFN-α, and IFN-β in different lymphoid organs were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The histopathological scores in Aseel birds were lower than in White Leghorns despite comparable viral loads. The degrees of histopathological lesions were fewer in vaccinated birds than in unvaccinated birds of both breeds. Analysis of innate immune response genes revealed that the cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor MDA-5 gene was overexpressed mainly in the cecal tonsils of both vaccinated and nonvaccinated White Leghorn chickens. An increase in the expression of the IFN-α gene was seen in the cecal tonsils of Aseels, and an increase in IFN-β gene expression was seen in the thymuses of White Leghorns following vvIBDV challenge both in vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. In addition, we observed that the Mx gene plays a minimal role, if any, in vvIBDV infection of the breeds under study. It remains interesting and important that although vvIBDV causes disease in indigenous Aseel birds, the faster clearance and reduced pathology of the virus in Aseel birds compared to White Leghorn chicken indicate some unidentified innate immune factors that are limiting IBDV in this breed. Further studies will be required to correlate kinetics of humoral and cellular immune response in relation to the virus load in different organs to illuminate the mechanism of genetic resistance in native breeds of chicken.

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          Most cited references 66

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          A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR.

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          Use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA is on the way to becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study low abundance gene expression. Real-time PCR is easy to perform, provides the necessary accuracy and produces reliable as well as rapid quantification results. But accurate quantification of nucleic acids requires a reproducible methodology and an adequate mathematical model for data analysis. This study enters into the particular topics of the relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR of a target gene transcript in comparison to a reference gene transcript. Therefore, a new mathematical model is presented. The relative expression ratio is calculated only from the real-time PCR efficiencies and the crossing point deviation of an unknown sample versus a control. This model needs no calibration curve. Control levels were included in the model to standardise each reaction run with respect to RNA integrity, sample loading and inter-PCR variations. High accuracy and reproducibility (<2.5% variation) were reached in LightCycler PCR using the established mathematical model.
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            The mammalian immune system has innate and adaptive components, which cooperate to protect the host against microbial infections. The innate immune system consists of functionally distinct 'modules' that evolved to provide different forms of protection against pathogens. It senses pathogens through pattern-recognition receptors, which trigger the activation of antimicrobial defences and stimulate the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune system, in turn, activates innate effector mechanisms in an antigen-specific manner. The connections between the various immune components are not fully understood, but recent progress brings us closer to an integrated view of the immune system and its function in host defence.
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              Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures.

              The interferon (IFN) system is an extremely powerful antiviral response that is capable of controlling most, if not all, virus infections in the absence of adaptive immunity. However, viruses can still replicate and cause disease in vivo, because they have some strategy for at least partially circumventing the IFN response. We reviewed this topic in 2000 [Goodbourn, S., Didcock, L. & Randall, R. E. (2000). J Gen Virol 81, 2341-2364] but, since then, a great deal has been discovered about the molecular mechanisms of the IFN response and how different viruses circumvent it. This information is of fundamental interest, but may also have practical application in the design and manufacture of attenuated virus vaccines and the development of novel antiviral drugs. In the first part of this review, we describe how viruses activate the IFN system, how IFNs induce transcription of their target genes and the mechanism of action of IFN-induced proteins with antiviral action. In the second part, we describe how viruses circumvent the IFN response. Here, we reflect upon possible consequences for both the virus and host of the different strategies that viruses have evolved and discuss whether certain viruses have exploited the IFN response to modulate their life cycle (e.g. to establish and maintain persistent/latent infections), whether perturbation of the IFN response by persistent infections can lead to chronic disease, and the importance of the IFN system as a species barrier to virus infections. Lastly, we briefly describe applied aspects that arise from an increase in our knowledge in this area, including vaccine design and manufacture, the development of novel antiviral drugs and the use of IFN-sensitive oncolytic viruses in the treatment of cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vaccines (Basel)
                Vaccines (Basel)
                vaccines
                Vaccines
                MDPI
                2076-393X
                26 October 2020
                December 2020
                : 8
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura UP 281001, India
                [2 ]Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura UP 281001, India; drajaysinghvet2001@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]The Avrum Gudelsky Veterinary Center, College Park, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; berin05@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly UP 243 122, India; kdhama@ 123456rediffmail.com (K.D.); sdsingh2005@ 123456gmail.com (S.D.S.)
                Author notes
                Article
                vaccines-08-00627
                10.3390/vaccines8040627
                7711558
                33114776
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                infectious bursal disease, pathology, immune response

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