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      Evaluation of the NS1 Rapid Test and the WHO Dengue Classification Schemes for Use as Bedside Diagnosis of Acute Dengue Fever in Adults

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          Abstract

          Because healthcare facilities in many dengue endemic countries lack laboratory support, early dengue diagnosis must rely on either clinical recognition or a bedside diagnostic test. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the 1997 and 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) dengue classification schemes and the NS1 strip test in acute sera from 154 virologically confirmed dengue patients and 200 patients with other febrile illnesses. Both WHO classification schemes had high sensitivity but lacked specificity. The NS1 strip test had high specificity, but its sensitivity was significantly lower in secondary compared with primary dengue infections. Differences in viral serotypes did not affect the performance of any of the three diagnostic approaches. Taken collectively, our findings indicate that the 1997 WHO dengue case definition can be used to exclude dengue, and the NS1 strip test can be used to confirm dengue infection, although the latter should be interpreted with caution in regions where secondary dengue infection is prevalent.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Global Spread and Persistence of Dengue

          Dengue is a spectrum of disease caused by four serotypes of the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus affecting humans today, and its incidence has increased dramatically in the past 50 years. Due in part to population growth and uncontrolled urbanization in tropical and subtropical countries, breeding sites for the mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus have proliferated, and successful vector control has proven problematic. Dengue viruses have evolved rapidly as they have spread worldwide, and genotypes associated with increased virulence have expanded from South and Southeast Asia into the Pacific and the Americas. This review explores the human, mosquito, and viral factors that contribute to the global spread and persistence of dengue, as well as the interaction between the three spheres, in the context of ecological and climate changes. What is known, as well as gaps in knowledge, is emphasized in light of future prospects for control and prevention of this pandemic disease.
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            Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections.

            During flavivirus infection in vitro, nonstructural protein NS1 is released in a host-restricted fashion from infected mammalian cells but not vector-derived insect cells. In order to analyze the biological relevance of NS1 secretion in vivo, we developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the protein in the sera of dengue virus-infected patients. The assay was based on serotype 1 NS1-specific mouse and rabbit polyclonal antibody preparations for antigen immunocapture and detection, respectively. With purified dengue virus type 1 NS1 as a protein standard, the sensitivity of our capture ELISA was less than 1 ng/ml. When a panel of patient sera was analyzed, the NS1 antigen was found circulating from the first day after the onset of fever up to day 9, once the clinical phase of the disease is over. The NS1 protein could be detected even when viral RNA was negative in reverse transcriptase-PCR or in the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies. NS1 circulation levels varied among individuals during the course of the disease, ranging from several nanograms per milliliter to several micrograms per milliliter, and peaked in one case at 50 microg/ml of serum. Interestingly, NS1 concentrations did not differ significantly in serum specimens obtained from patients experiencing primary or secondary dengue virus infections. These findings indicate that NS1 protein detection may allow early diagnosis of infection. Furthermore, NS1 circulation in the bloodstream of patients during the clinical phase of the disease suggests a contribution of the nonstructural protein to dengue virus pathogenesis.
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              Early clinical and laboratory indicators of acute dengue illness.

              A prospective observational study was conducted to identify early indicators of acute dengue virus infection. Children with fever for <72 h without obvious cause were studied at hospitals in Bangkok and Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, until resolution of fever. Of 172 evaluable subjects (91% of enrollees), 60 (35%) had dengue, including 32 with dengue fever (DF) and 28 with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). At enrollment, children with dengue were more likely than children with other febrile illnesses (OFI) to report anorexia, nausea, and vomiting and to have a positive tourniquet test, and they had lower total white blood cell counts, absolute neutrophil and absolute monocyte counts, and higher plasma alanine and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase levels than children with OFI. Plasma AST levels were higher in children who developed DHF than in those with DF. These data identify simple clinical and laboratory parameters that help to identify children with DF or DHF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Am J Trop Med Hyg
                tpmd
                The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                0002-9637
                1476-1645
                04 February 2011
                04 February 2011
                : 84
                : 2
                : 224-228
                Affiliations
                Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke—National University of Singapore (NUS) Graduate Medical School, Singapore; Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke—NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
                Author notes
                *Address correspondence to Eng-Eong Ooi, Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke—NUS Graduate Medical School, 8 College Road, 2 Jalan Bukit Merah, Singapore 169854. E-mail: engeong.ooi@ 123456duke-nus.edu.sg
                Article
                10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0316
                3029171
                21292888
                ©The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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