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      Concentration-Dependent Feeding Deterrence to 20-Hydroxyecdysone for Three Subterranean Termite Species (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)

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          Abstract

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          Subterranean termite colonies can be eliminated using baiting systems. However, for a given bait to be effective, the active ingredient must be lethal at concentrations that are also palatable to termites. The insect molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), has potential for use in termite baits, but its palatability to termites has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine what concentrations of 20E, if any, cause termite workers to feed less readily. To test this, paper disks were treated with various concentrations of 20E. Groups of 1000 termites of three different species; the Formosan, the Asian and the Eastern subterranean termite; were placed in arenas. The termites had the option of following a path to feed on either a paper disk containing the 20E, or an untreated disk, and the amount of paper consumed was then compared. The results showed that the Asian subterranean termite had the least tolerance for the 20E, the Formosan subterranean termite had a reduced tolerance, and the presence of the 20E had no impact on the Eastern subterranean termite.

          Abstract

          Effective active ingredients in toxicant bait formulations must be non-deterrent to insect feeding behavior at lethal concentrations. This study evaluated feeding deterrence for Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, C. gestroi (Wasmann), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) when provided access to cellulose impregnated with various concentrations of the insect molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Termites were exposed to 20E concentrations of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm and to noviflumuron at 5000 ppm in a 24 h choice-test, and the mass of substrate consumption from treated and untreated media pads was compared for each treatment. 20E feeding deterrence was detected at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm for C. gestroi, and at 2000 ppm for C. formosanus. No significant differences in consumption of treated and untreated substrate was detected at any concentration for R. flavipes. Potential methods for reducing deterrence are discussed.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Managing social insects of urban importance.

           K Rust,  Nan-Yao Su (2011)
          Social insects have a tremendous economic and social impact on urban communities. The rapid urbanization of the world has dramatically increased the incidence of urban pests. Human commerce has resulted in the spread of urban invasive species worldwide such that various species are now common to many major urban centers. We aim to highlight those social behaviors that can be exploited to control these pests with the minimal use of pesticides. Their cryptic behavior often prohibits the direct treatment of colonies. However, foraging and recruitment are essential aspects of their social behavior and expose workers to traps, baits, and pesticide applications. The advent of new chemistries has revolutionized the pest management strategies used to control them. In recent years, there has been an increased environmental awareness, especially in the urban community. Advances in molecular and microbial agents promise additional tools in developing integrated pest management programs against social insects. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
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            Field Evaluation of a Hexaflumuron Bait for Population Suppression of Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

             Nan-Yao Su (1994)
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              Response of the Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to baits or nonrepellent termiticides in extended foraging arenas.

               Nan-Yao Su (2005)
              Distance effects of three treatments, noviflumuron, fipronil, and thiamethoxam, against laboratory populations of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki, were tested in extended foraging arenas with foraging distances of 50 m. The results showed that during the 10-wk test period, all termites were killed by noviflumuron baits, whereas the nonrepellent termiticides fipronil and thiamethoxam divided the laboratory populations into two groups after causing 25-35% worker mortality. The horizontal transfer of lethal effects of fipronil was < or = 5 m. For thiamethoxam, the distance of transfer was substantially shorter. Because of their dose-dependent lethal time, the nonrepellent termiticides did not fulfill the requirements of a liquid bait model.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                04 March 2021
                March 2021
                : 12
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]American Pest, 11820 West Market Place, Fulton, MD 20759, USA; lcarnohan@ 123456americanpest.net
                [2 ]Department of Entomology and Nematology, Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 3205 College Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314, USA; nysu@ 123456ufl.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lsb5162@ 123456ufl.edu
                Article
                insects-12-00218
                10.3390/insects12030218
                8000253
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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