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      Lipid14: The Amber Lipid Force Field

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          The AMBER lipid force field has been updated to create Lipid14, allowing tensionless simulation of a number of lipid types with the AMBER MD package. The modular nature of this force field allows numerous combinations of head and tail groups to create different lipid types, enabling the easy insertion of new lipid species. The Lennard-Jones and torsion parameters of both the head and tail groups have been revised and updated partial charges calculated. The force field has been validated by simulating bilayers of six different lipid types for a total of 0.5 μs each without applying a surface tension; with favorable comparison to experiment for properties such as area per lipid, volume per lipid, bilayer thickness, NMR order parameters, scattering data, and lipid lateral diffusion. As the derivation of this force field is consistent with the AMBER development philosophy, Lipid14 is compatible with the AMBER protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and small molecule force fields.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Development and testing of a general amber force field.

          We describe here a general Amber force field (GAFF) for organic molecules. GAFF is designed to be compatible with existing Amber force fields for proteins and nucleic acids, and has parameters for most organic and pharmaceutical molecules that are composed of H, C, N, O, S, P, and halogens. It uses a simple functional form and a limited number of atom types, but incorporates both empirical and heuristic models to estimate force constants and partial atomic charges. The performance of GAFF in test cases is encouraging. In test I, 74 crystallographic structures were compared to GAFF minimized structures, with a root-mean-square displacement of 0.26 A, which is comparable to that of the Tripos 5.2 force field (0.25 A) and better than those of MMFF 94 and CHARMm (0.47 and 0.44 A, respectively). In test II, gas phase minimizations were performed on 22 nucleic acid base pairs, and the minimized structures and intermolecular energies were compared to MP2/6-31G* results. The RMS of displacements and relative energies were 0.25 A and 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. These data are comparable to results from Parm99/RESP (0.16 A and 1.18 kcal/mol, respectively), which were parameterized to these base pairs. Test III looked at the relative energies of 71 conformational pairs that were used in development of the Parm99 force field. The RMS error in relative energies (compared to experiment) is about 0.5 kcal/mol. GAFF can be applied to wide range of molecules in an automatic fashion, making it suitable for rational drug design and database searching. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave.

            Throughout the biological world, a 30 A hydrophobic film typically delimits the environments that serve as the margin between life and death for individual cells. Biochemical and biophysical findings have provided a detailed model of the composition and structure of membranes, which includes levels of dynamic organization both across the lipid bilayer (lipid asymmetry) and in the lateral dimension (lipid domains) of membranes. How do cells apply anabolic and catabolic enzymes, translocases and transporters, plus the intrinsic physical phase behaviour of lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, to create the unique compositions and multiple functionalities of their individual membranes?
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              The MARTINI force field: coarse grained model for biomolecular simulations.

              We present an improved and extended version of our coarse grained lipid model. The new version, coined the MARTINI force field, is parametrized in a systematic way, based on the reproduction of partitioning free energies between polar and apolar phases of a large number of chemical compounds. To reproduce the free energies of these chemical building blocks, the number of possible interaction levels of the coarse-grained sites has increased compared to those of the previous model. Application of the new model to lipid bilayers shows an improved behavior in terms of the stress profile across the bilayer and the tendency to form pores. An extension of the force field now also allows the simulation of planar (ring) compounds, including sterols. Application to a bilayer/cholesterol system at various concentrations shows the typical cholesterol condensation effect similar to that observed in all atom representations.

                Author and article information

                [§ ]Department of Chemistry and Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London , South Kensington SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
                []San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of California San Diego , 9500 Gilman Drive MC0505, La Jolla, California 92093-0505, United States
                []Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen , N-5009 Bergen, Norway
                [± ]Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego , 9500 Gilman Drive MC0505, La Jolla, California 92093-0505, United States
                Author notes
                J Chem Theory Comput
                J Chem Theory Comput
                Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
                American Chemical Society
                30 January 2015
                30 January 2014
                11 February 2014
                : 10
                : 2
                : 865-879
                24803855 3985482 10.1021/ct4010307
                Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
                National Institutes of Health, United States
                Custom metadata

                Computational chemistry & Modeling


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