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      Design, synthesis, and computational studies on dihydropyrimidine scaffolds as potential lipoxygenase inhibitors and cancer chemopreventive agents

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          Abstract

          Dihydropyrimidine scaffold has a wide range of potential pharmacological activities such as antiviral, antitubercular, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. 5-Lipoxygenase enzyme is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes. The elevated levels of this enzyme and its metabolites in cancer cells have a direct relation on the development of cancer when compared to normal cells. The development of novel lipoxygenase inhibitors can have a major role in cancer therapy. A series of substituted 1,4-dihydropyrimidine analogues were synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and HRMS. Molecular docking against lipoxygenase enzyme (protein data bank code =3V99) was done using Molecular Operating Environment 2013.08 and Leadit 2.1.2 softwares and showed high affinities. The synthesized compounds were tested for their lipoxygenase inhibitory activity and showed inhibition ranging from 59.37%±0.66% to 81.19%±0.94%. The activity was explained by a molecular docking study. The title compounds were also tested for cytotoxic activity against two human cancer cell lines Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 and human melanoma cells and a normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell line.

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          Most cited references 29

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          A fast flexible docking method using an incremental construction algorithm.

          We present an automatic method for docking organic ligands into protein binding sites. The method can be used in the design process of specific protein ligands. It combines an appropriate model of the physico-chemical properties of the docked molecules with efficient methods for sampling the conformational space of the ligand. If the ligand is flexible, it can adopt a large variety of different conformations. Each such minimum in conformational space presents a potential candidate for the conformation of the ligand in the complexed state. Our docking method samples the conformation space of the ligand on the basis of a discrete model and uses a tree-search technique for placing the ligand incrementally into the active site. For placing the first fragment of the ligand into the protein, we use hashing techniques adapted from computer vision. The incremental construction algorithm is based on a greedy strategy combined with efficient methods for overlap detection and for the search of new interactions. We present results on 19 complexes of which the binding geometry has been crystallographically determined. All considered ligands are docked in at most three minutes on a current workstation. The experimentally observed binding mode of the ligand is reproduced with 0.5 to 1.2 A rms deviation. It is almost always found among the highest-ranking conformations computed.
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            Recent advances in the Biginelli dihydropyrimidine synthesis. New tricks from an old dog.

            In 1893, P. Biginelli reported the synthesis of functionalized 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones (DHPMs) via three-component condensation reaction of an aromatic aldehyde, urea, and ethyl acetoacetate. In the past decade, this long-neglected multicomponent reaction has experienced a remarkable revival, mainly due to the interesting pharmacological properties associated with this dihydropyrimidine scaffold. In this Account, we highlight recent developments in the Biginelli reaction in areas such as solid-phase synthesis, combinatorial chemistry, and natural product synthesis.
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              Inhibitors of lipoxygenase: a new class of cancer chemopreventive agents.

              5-Lipoxygenase is a key enzyme in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes. The preventive efficacy of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors against lung tumorigenesis was determined in A/J mice given the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in drinking water from week 0 to week +7. Groups of 25 mice were fed either: acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; A-79175, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor; MK-886, an inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase activating-protein; a combination of ASA and A-79175 from weeks -2 to +23. ASA, A-79175 and MK-886 reduced lung tumor multiplicity by 44, 75 and 52% respectively. Furthermore, A-79175 reduced tumor incidence by 20%. Administration of A-79175 and MK-886 decreased the mean tumor volume by 64 and 44% respectively. Lung tumor multiplicity was directly proportional to tumor volume. The combination of ASA and A-79715 was the most effective preventive intervention and reduced lung tumor multiplicity by 87% and lung tumor incidence by 24%, demonstrating that inhibition of both 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase is more effective than inhibition of either pathway alone. NNK treatment increased plasma prostaglandin E2 levels from 49 to 260 pg/ml and plasma LTB4 levels from 29 to 71 pg/ml. Incubation of 82-132 and LM2 murine lung tumor cells with MK-886 and A-79715 decreased cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Soybean lipoxygenases with or without murine lung microsomal proteins metabolized NNK by alpha-carbon hydroxylation (9.5% of the metabolites) and N-oxidation (3.9%). Activation of NNK by alpha-carbon hydroxylation was inhibited by addition of arachidonic acid and A-79715. Possible mechanisms of action of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors include inhibition of tumor growth and lipoxygenase-mediated activation of NNK. These studies suggest that inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase may have benefits as preventive agents of lung tumorigenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                17 February 2015
                : 9
                : 911-921
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ein Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
                [4 ]Department of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, South Africa
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Katharigatta N Venugopala, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, PO Box number 400, Al-Ahsa 31982, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Tel +966 13 589 8842, Fax +966 13 581 7174, Email kvenugopala@ 123456kfu.edu.sa
                Bharti Odhav, Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus, S9, L1, Durban 4001, South Africa, Tel +27 31 373 5330, Fax +27 31 373 5351, Email odahvb@ 123456dut.ac.za
                Article
                dddt-9-911
                10.2147/DDDT.S73890
                4338777
                25733811
                © 2015 Venugopala et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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