Carla Bentes , 1 , 2 , Hugo Martins 3 , Ana Rita Peralta 1 , 2 , Carlos Morgado 2 , 4 , Carlos Casimiro 4 , Ana Catarina Franco 1 , Ana Catarina Fonseca 1 , 2 , Ruth Geraldes 1 , 2 , Patrícia Canhão 1 , 2 , Teresa Pinho e Melo 1 , 2 , Teresa Paiva 5 , José M. Ferro 1 , 2
07 March 2018
Electroencephalography (EEG) can identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. However, few studies have used EEG in the prediction of poststroke seizures. Our primary aim was to evaluate whether early EEG abnormalities can predict poststroke epilepsy.
A prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients, without previous epileptic seizures, who were admitted to a stroke unit over 24 months and followed for 1 year. All patients underwent standardized clinical and diagnostic assessment during the hospital stay and after discharge. Video‐ EEG was performed in the first 72 h (first EEG), daily for the first 7 days, in case of neurological deterioration, at discharge, and at 12 months after stroke. The occurrence of epileptic seizures in the first year after stroke (primary outcome) was evaluated clinically and neurophysiologically during the hospital stay and at 12 months. A telephone interview was also performed at 6 months. The primary outcome was the occurrence of at least one unprovoked seizure (poststroke epilepsy). Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of at least one acute symptomatic seizure and (interictal and/or ictal) epileptiform activity on at least one EEG during the hospital stay for acute stroke. The first EEG variables were defined using international criteria/terminology. Bivariate and multivariate analyses with adjustment for age, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ( NIHSS) score, and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) were performed.
A total of 151 patients were included; 38 patients (25.2%) had an acute symptomatic seizure and 23 (16%) had an unprovoked seizure.
The first EEG background activity asymmetry and first EEG with interictal epileptiform activity were independent predictors of poststroke epilepsy during the first year after stroke ( P = 0.043 and P = 0.043, respectively). No EEG abnormality independently predicted acute symptomatic seizures. However, the presence of periodic discharges on the first EEG was an independent predictor of epileptiform activity (p = 0.009) during the hospital stay.