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      Prevalence of TET genes mediating tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Osun State, Nigeria

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          The occurrence of tetracycline resistance determinants in 203 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from clinical samples at three different hospitals in Nigeria between June 2009 and May 2010 was investigated. The isolates were subjected to standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of eight antibiotics was also performed, and resistance genes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. One hundred and six E. coli isolates (52.2%) were obtained at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo, 85 (41.9%) from OAUTHC Ile Ife and 12 (5.9%) from Osun State Hospital Asubiaro Osogbo. Result of the disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test showed 96.1% isolates to be resistant to ampicillin, 77.8% to tetracycline, 37.9% to cotrimoxazole, 38.4% to nalidixic acid, 20.7% to ofloxacin, 17.7% to ceftriaxone, 11.8% to gentamycin, and 2% to nitrofurantoin. One hundred and sixty two (79.9%) isolates had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline ≥ 128 μg/ml. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected tetA gene in 89 (43.8%) isolates, tetB gene in 65 (32.0%), and both tetA and tetB genes in 9 (4.4%) isolates. The study demonstrated a relatively high level of gene mediated antibiotic resistance to tetracycline and other antibiotics in E. coli clinical isolates in Southwest region of Nigeria.

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          Most cited references20

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          Tetracycline resistance determinants: mechanisms of action, regulation of expression, genetic mobility, and distribution.

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          Tetracycline-resistant bacteria were first isolated in 1953 from Shigella dysenteriae, a bacterium which causes bacterial dysentery. Since then tetracycline-resistant bacterial have been found in increasing numbers of species and genera. This has resulted in reduced effectiveness of tetracycline therapy over time. Tetracycline resistance is normally due to the acquisition of new genes often associated with either a mobile plasmid or a transposon. These tetracycline resistance determinants are distinguishable both genetically and biochemically. Resistance is primarily due to either energy-dependent efflux of tetracycline or protection of the ribosomes from the action of tetracycline. Gram-negative tetracycline efflux proteins are linked to repressor proteins which in the absence of tetracycline block transcription of the repressor and structural efflux genes. In contrast, expression of the Gram-positive tetracycline efflux genes and some of the ribosomal protection genes appears to be regulated by attenuation of mRNA transcription. Specific tetracycline resistance genes have been identified in 32 Gram-negative and 22 Gram-positive genera. Tetracycline-resistant bacteria are found in pathogens, opportunistic and normal flora species. Tetracycline-resistant bacteria can be isolated from man, animals, food, and the environment. The nonpathogens in each of these ecosystems may play an important role as reservoirs for the antibiotic resistance genes. It is clear that if we are to reverse the trend toward increasingly antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria we will need to change how antibiotics are used in both human and animal health and food production.
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            Molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance.

            The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art.
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              Since the first usage of antimicrobials, the burden of resistance among bacteria has progressively increased and has accelerated within the last 10 years. Antibiotic resistance genes were present at very low levels prior to the introduction of antibiotics and it is largely the selective pressure of antibiotic use and the resulting exposure of bacteria, not only in humans but also in companion and food animals and the environment, which has caused the rise. The increasing mobility across the globe of people, food and animals is another factor. Examples of this are the international pandemic of different genotypes of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (particularly CTX-M-14 and -15) and the emergence of the carbapenemase KPC-1 in both the USA and Israel. This review details examples of both the emergence and dissemination through different genetic routes, both direct and indirect selective pressure, of significance resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter. The response made by society to reduce resistance involves surveillance, reduced usage, improved infection control and the introduction of new antimicrobial agents. Although efforts are being made in all these areas, there is an urgent need to increase the effectiveness of these interventions or some bacterial infections will become difficult if not impossible to treat reliably.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 June 2013
                : 3
                : 2
                : 135-140
                [ 1 ] Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4400, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
                Author notes
                Original Articles

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                tet gene, Escherichia coli ,tetracycline,resistance


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