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      Specific antibody response of mice after immunization with COS-7 cell derived avian influenza virus (H5N1) recombinant proteins

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          To develop avian influenza H5N1 recombinant protein, the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), and non-structural (NS1) of avian influenza H5N1 isolates from Thailand were engineered to be expressed in prokaryotic ( E. coli) and mammalian cell (COS-7) system. The plasmid pBAD-His and pSec-His were used as vectors for these inserted genes. Mice immunized with purified recombinant proteins at concentration 50–250 μg intramuscularly with Alum adjuvant at week 0, week 2, and week 3 showed a good immunogenicity measured by ELISA and neutralization assay. The HA and NS recombinant proteins produced in COS-7 cells can induce specific antibody titer detected by neutralization assay significantly higher than corresponding recombinant proteins produced in E. coli system. The antibody produced in immunized mice could neutralize heterologous avian influenza virus determined by micro-neutralization assay. This study shows that avian influenza virus H5N1 recombinant proteins produced in mammalian cell system were able to induce neutralizing antibody response.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Tight regulation, modulation, and high-level expression by vectors containing the arabinose PBAD promoter.

          We have constructed a series of plasmid vectors (pBAD vectors) containing the PBAD promoter of the araBAD (arabinose) operon and the gene encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter, araC. Using the phoA gene and phoA fusions to monitor expression in these vectors, we show that the ratio of induction/repression can be 1,200-fold, compared with 50-fold for PTAC-based vectors. phoA expression can be modulated over a wide range of inducer (arabinose) concentrations and reduced to extremely low levels by the presence of glucose, which represses expression. Also, the kinetics of induction and repression are very rapid and significantly affected by the ara allele in the host strain. Thus, the use of this system which can be efficiently and rapidly turned on and off allows the study of important aspects of bacterial physiology in a very simple manner and without changes of temperature. We have exploited the tight regulation of the PBAD promoter to study the phenotypes of null mutations of essential genes and explored the use of pBAD vectors as an expression system.
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            Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia.

            A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial human outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997 (refs 2-4) and subsequent avian outbreaks in 2001 and 2002 (refs 5, 6). These events gave rise to a dominant H5N1 genotype (Z) in chickens and ducks that was responsible for the regional outbreak in 2003-04. Our findings indicate that domestic ducks in southern China had a central role in the generation and maintenance of this virus, and that wild birds may have contributed to the increasingly wide spread of the virus in Asia. Our results suggest that H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential have become endemic in the region and are not easily eradicable. These developments pose a threat to public and veterinary health in the region and potentially the world, and suggest that long-term control measures are required.
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              Production of recombinant protein therapeutics in cultivated mammalian cells.

              Cultivated mammalian cells have become the dominant system for the production of recombinant proteins for clinical applications because of their capacity for proper protein folding, assembly and post-translational modification. Thus, the quality and efficacy of a protein can be superior when expressed in mammalian cells versus other hosts such as bacteria, plants and yeast. Recently, the productivity of mammalian cells cultivated in bioreactors has reached the gram per liter range in a number of cases, a more than 100-fold yield improvement over titers seen for similar processes in the mid-1980s. This increase in volumetric productivity has resulted mainly from improvements in media composition and process control. Opportunities still exist for improving mammalian cell systems through further advancements in production systems as well as through vector and host cell engineering.

                Author and article information

                J Immune Based Ther Vaccines
                Journal of Immune Based Therapies and Vaccines
                BioMed Central
                3 October 2007
                : 5
                : 10
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
                [2 ]Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
                Copyright © 2007 Horthongkham et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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