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      A multicenter study on the effect of continuous hemodiafiltration intensity on antibiotic pharmacokinetics

      research-article
      , , , , , , , , On behalf of the RENAL Replacement Therapy Study Investigators
      Critical Care
      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may alter antibiotic pharmacokinetics and increase the risk of incorrect dosing. In a nested cohort within a large randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effect of higher (40 mL/kg per hour) and lower (25 mL/kg per hour) intensity CRRT on antibiotic pharmacokinetics.

          Methods

          We collected serial blood samples to measure ciprofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and vancomycin levels. We calculated extracorporeal clearance (CL), systemic CL, and volume of distribution (Vd) by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. We assessed the influence of CRRT intensity and other patient factors on antibiotic pharmacokinetics.

          Results

          We studied 24 patients who provided 179 pairs of samples. Extracorporeal CL increased with higher-intensity CRRT but the increase was significant for vancomycin only (mean 28 versus 22 mL/minute; P = 0.0003). At any given prescribed CRRT effluent rate, extracorporeal CL of individual antibiotics varied widely, and the effluent-to-plasma concentration ratio decreased with increasing effluent flow. Overall, systemic CL varied to a greater extent than Vd, particularly for meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam, and large intra-individual differences were also observed. CRRT dose did not influence overall (systemic) CL, Vd, or half-life. The proportion of systemic CL due to CRRT varied widely and was high in some cases.

          Conclusions

          In patients receiving CRRT, there is great variability in antibiotic pharmacokinetics, which complicates an empiric approach to dosing and suggests the need for therapeutic drug monitoring. More research is required to investigate the apparent relative decrease in clearance at higher CRRT effluent rates.

          Trial registration

          ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00221013. Registered 14 September 2005.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-015-0818-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references45

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          DALI: defining antibiotic levels in intensive care unit patients: are current β-lactam antibiotic doses sufficient for critically ill patients?

          Morbidity and mortality for critically ill patients with infections remains a global healthcare problem. We aimed to determine whether β-lactam antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients achieves concentrations associated with maximal activity and whether antibiotic concentrations affect patient outcome. This was a prospective, multinational pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study including 8 β-lactam antibiotics. Two blood samples were taken from each patient during a single dosing interval. The primary pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets were free antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the pathogen at both 50% (50% f T>MIC) and 100% (100% f T>MIC) of the dosing interval. We used skewed logistic regression to describe the effect of antibiotic exposure on patient outcome. We included 384 patients (361 evaluable patients) across 68 hospitals. The median age was 61 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-73) years, the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18 (IQR, 14-24), and 65% of patients were male. Of the 248 patients treated for infection, 16% did not achieve 50% f T>MIC and these patients were 32% less likely to have a positive clinical outcome (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; P = .009). Positive clinical outcome was associated with increasing 50% f T>MIC and 100% f T>MIC ratios (OR, 1.02 and 1.56, respectively; P < .03), with significant interaction with sickness severity status. Infected critically ill patients may have adverse outcomes as a result of inadeqaute antibiotic exposure; a paradigm change to more personalized antibiotic dosing may be necessary to improve outcomes for these most seriously ill patients.
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            Septic acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: clinical characteristics and outcomes.

            Sepsis is the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critical illness, but there is limited information on septic AKI. A prospective, observational study of critically ill patients with septic and nonseptic AKI was performed from September 2000 to December 2001 at 54 hospitals in 23 countries. A total of 1753 patients were enrolled. Sepsis was considered the cause in 833 (47.5%); the predominant sources of sepsis were chest and abdominal (54.3%). Septic AKI was associated with greater aberrations in hemodynamics and laboratory parameters, greater severity of illness, and higher need for mechanical ventilation and vasoactive therapy. There was no difference in enrollment kidney function or in the proportion who received renal replacement therapy (RRT; 72 versus 71%; P = 0.83). Oliguria was more common in septic AKI (67 versus 57%; P < 0.001). Septic AKI had a higher in-hospital case-fatality rate compared with nonseptic AKI (70.2 versus 51.8%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, septic AKI remained associated with higher odds for death (1.48; 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.89; P = 0.001). Median (IQR) duration of hospital stay for survivors (37 [19 to 59] versus 21 [12 to 42] d; P < 0.0001) was longer for septic AKI. There was a trend to lower serum creatinine (106 [73 to 158] versus 121 [88 to 184] mumol/L; P = 0.01) and RRT dependence (9 versus 14%; P = 0.052) at hospital discharge for septic AKI. Patients with septic AKI were sicker and had a higher burden of illness and greater abnormalities in acute physiology. Patients with septic AKI had an increased risk for death and longer duration of hospitalization yet showed trends toward greater renal recovery and independence from RRT.
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              Insufficient β-lactam concentrations in the early phase of severe sepsis and septic shock

              Introduction Altered pharmacokinetics (PK) in critically ill patients can result in insufficient serum β-lactam concentrations when standard dosages are administered. Previous studies on β-lactam PK have generally excluded the most severely ill patients, or were conducted during the steady-state period of treatment. The aim of our study was to determine whether the first dose of piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, and meropenem would result in adequate serum drug concentrations in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods Open, prospective, multicenter study in four Belgian intensive care units. All consecutive patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock, in whom treatment with the study drugs was indicated, were included. Serum concentrations of the antibiotics were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) before and 1, 1.5, 4.5 and 6 or 8 hours after administration. Results 80 patients were treated with piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 27), ceftazidime (n = 18), cefepime (n = 19) or meropenem (n = 16). Serum concentrations remained above 4 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (T > 4 × MIC), corresponding to the clinical breakpoint for Pseudomonas aeruginosa defined by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), for 57% of the dosage interval for meropenem (target MIC = 8 μg/mL), 45% for ceftazidime (MIC = 32 μg/mL), 34% for cefepime (MIC = 32 μg/mL), and 33% for piperacillin-tazobactam (MIC = 64 μg/mL). The number of patients who attained the target PK profile was 12/16 for meropenem (75%), 5/18 for ceftazidime (28%), 3/19 (16%) for cefepime, and 12/27 (44%) for piperacillin-tazobactam. Conclusions Serum concentrations of the antibiotic after the first dose were acceptable only for meropenem. Standard dosage regimens for piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime and cefepime may, therefore, be insufficient to empirically cover less susceptible pathogens in the early phase of severe sepsis and septic shock.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                darren.roberts@uq.edu.au
                xin.liu@uq.edu.au
                j.roberts2@uq.edu.au
                pnair@stvincents.com.au
                l.cole@sydney.edu.au
                m.roberts@uq.edu.au
                j.lipman@uq.edu.au
                rinaldo.bellomo@austin.org.au
                Journal
                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central (London )
                1364-8535
                1466-609X
                13 March 2015
                13 March 2015
                2015
                : 19
                : 1
                : 84
                Affiliations
                [ ]Burns Trauma and Critical Care Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Level 3 Ned Hanlon Building, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Butterfield Street, Brisbane, Queensland 4029 Australia
                [ ]Therapeutics Research Centre, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Brisbane, Queensland 4102 Australia
                [ ]University of South Australia, City East Campus, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 Australia
                [ ]The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 28 Woodville Road, Woodville South, Adelaide, South Australia, 5011 Australia
                [ ]Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Level 3 Ned Hanlon Building, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Butterfield Street, Brisbane, Queensland 4029 Australia
                [ ]Intensive Care Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010 Australia
                [ ]Intensive Care Unit, Nepean Hospital, Derby Street, Kingswood, NSW 2747 Australia
                [ ]Department of Intensive Care, Austin Health, 145 Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 Australia
                Article
                818
                10.1186/s13054-015-0818-8
                4404619
                25881576
                72767cab-6791-4258-9738-08c92c534758
                © Roberts et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 13 October 2014
                : 17 February 2015
                Categories
                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Emergency medicine & Trauma
                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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