Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of enzymes whose members transduce a large variety of cellular signals instigated by the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. While PKC has been widely implicated in the pathology of diseases affecting all areas of physiology including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease—it was discovered, and initially characterized, in the brain. PKC plays a key role in controlling the balance between cell survival and cell death. Its loss of function is generally associated with cancer, whereas its enhanced activity is associated with neurodegeneration. This review presents an overview of signaling by diacylglycerol (DG)-dependent PKC isozymes in the brain, and focuses on the role of the Ca 2+-sensitive conventional PKC isozymes in neurodegeneration.