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      Conventional protein kinase C in the brain: 40 years later

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          Abstract

          Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of enzymes whose members transduce a large variety of cellular signals instigated by the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. While PKC has been widely implicated in the pathology of diseases affecting all areas of physiology including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease—it was discovered, and initially characterized, in the brain. PKC plays a key role in controlling the balance between cell survival and cell death. Its loss of function is generally associated with cancer, whereas its enhanced activity is associated with neurodegeneration. This review presents an overview of signaling by diacylglycerol (DG)-dependent PKC isozymes in the brain, and focuses on the role of the Ca 2+-sensitive conventional PKC isozymes in neurodegeneration.

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          Proteomics. Tissue-based map of the human proteome.

          Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transcriptomics at the tissue and organ level, combined with tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, to achieve spatial localization of proteins down to the single-cell level. Our tissue-based analysis detected more than 90% of the putative protein-coding genes. We used this approach to explore the human secretome, the membrane proteome, the druggable proteome, the cancer proteome, and the metabolic functions in 32 different tissues and organs. All the data are integrated in an interactive Web-based database that allows exploration of individual proteins, as well as navigation of global expression patterns, in all major tissues and organs in the human body. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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            LTP and LTD: an embarrassment of riches.

            LTP and LTD, the long-term potentiation and depression of excitatory synaptic transmission, are widespread phenomena expressed at possibly every excitatory synapse in the mammalian brain. It is now clear that "LTP" and "LTD" are not unitary phenomena. Their mechanisms vary depending on the synapses and circuits in which they operate. Here we review those forms of LTP and LTD for which mechanisms have been most firmly established. Examples are provided that show how these mechanisms can contribute to experience-dependent modifications of brain function.
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              AMPAR removal underlies Abeta-induced synaptic depression and dendritic spine loss.

              Beta amyloid (Abeta), a peptide generated from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by neurons, is widely believed to underlie the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies indicate that this peptide can drive loss of surface AMPA and NMDA type glutamate receptors. We now show that Abeta employs signaling pathways of long-term depression (LTD) to drive endocytosis of synaptic AMPA receptors. Synaptic removal of AMPA receptors is necessary and sufficient to produce loss of dendritic spines and synaptic NMDA responses. Our studies indicate the central role played by AMPA receptor trafficking in Abeta-induced modification of synaptic structure and function.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0721, U.S.A.
                [ 2 ]Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0721, U.S.A.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alexandra C. Newton ( anewton@ 123456ucsd.edu )
                Journal
                ppneurosig
                NS
                Neuronal Signal.
                Neuronal Signaling
                Neuronal Signal.
                Portland Press Ltd.
                2059-6553
                7 March 2017
                10 April 2017
                30 April 2017
                : 1
                : 2 ( displayID: 2 )
                NS20160005
                10.1042/NS20160005
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0 (CC BY).

                Counts
                Figures: 3, References: 109, Pages: 10
                Product
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.neuronalsignaling.org/
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