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      Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in Nepalese individuals with type 2 diabetes


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          Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely detection and characterization of this condition help clinicians estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease and take appropriate preventive measures. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and predictors of dyslipidemia in a cohort of Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes.


          We found mixed dyslipidemia as the most prevalent (88.1%) and isolated dyslipidemia (10.1%) as the least prevalent forms of dyslipidemia in our patients. The most prevalent form of single dyslipidemia was high LDL-C (73.8%) and combined dyslipidemia was high TG, high LDL-C and low HDL-C (44.7%). Prevalence of all single and mixed dyslipidemia was higher in patients with poor glycemic control and hypertension. The glycemic status of patients correlated with their fasting serum lipid profile. Dyslipidemia was associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension.


          Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension. It is highly prevalent in Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes. Urgent lifestyle modification, sustained glycemic control and aggressive lipid lowering treatment plans are necessary to minimize the future risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13104-017-2465-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

           A D Mooradian (2009)
          Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The characteristic features of diabetic dyslipidemia are a high plasma triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol concentration and increased concentration of small dense LDL-cholesterol particles. The lipid changes associated with diabetes mellitus are attributed to increased free fatty acid flux secondary to insulin resistance. The availability of multiple lipid-lowering drugs and supplements provides new opportunities for patients to achieve target lipid levels. However, the variety of therapeutic options poses a challenge in the prioritization of drug therapy. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia is not increased in patients with diabetes mellitus, but mortality from coronary heart disease increases exponentially as a function of serum cholesterol levels, and lowering of cholesterol with statins reduces diabetic patients' relative cardiovascular risk. Although drug therapy for dyslipidemia must be individualized, most people with diabetes mellitus are candidates for statin therapy, and often need treatment with multiple agents to achieve therapeutic goals.
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            Diabetic dyslipidaemia: from basic research to clinical practice.

             M-R Taskinen (2003)
            The recognition that the increase of plasma triglyceride rich lipoproteins (TRLs) is associated with multiple alterations of other lipoproteins species that are potentially atherogenic has expanded the picture of diabetic dyslipidaemia. The discovery of heterogeneity within major lipoprotein classes VLDL, LDL and HDL opened new avenues to reveal the specific pertubations of diabetic dyslipidaemia. The increase of large VLDL 1 particles in Type 2 diabetes initiates a sequence of events that generates atherogenic remnants, small dense LDL and small dense HDL particles. Together these components comprise the atherogenic lipid triad. Notably the malignant nature of diabetic dyslipidaemia is not completely shown by the lipid measures used in clinical practice. The key question is what are the mechanisms behind the increase of VLDL 1 particles in diabetic dyslipidaemia? Despite the advances of recent years, our understanding of VLDL assembly and secretion is still surprisingly incomplete. To date it is still unclear how the liver is able to regulate the amount of triglycerides incorporated into VLDL particles to produce either VLDL 1 or VLDL 2 particles. The current evidence suggests that the machinery driving VLDL assembly in the liver includes (i) low insulin signalling via PI-3 kinase pathway that enhances lipid accumulation into "nascent " VLDL particles (ii) up-regulation of SREBP-1C that stimulates de novo lipogenesis and (iii) excess availability of "polar molecules" in hepatocytes that stabilizes apo B 100. Recent data suggest that all these steps could be fundamentally altered in Type 2 diabetes explaining the overproduction of VLDL apo B as well as the ability of insulin to suppress VLDL 1 apo B production in Type 2 diabetes. Recent discoveries have established the transcription factors including PPARs, SREBP-1 and LXRs as the key regulators of lipid assembly in the liver. These observations suggest these factors as a new target to tailor more efficient drugs to treat diabetic dyslipidaemia.
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              Type 2 diabetes as a "coronary heart disease equivalent": an 18-year prospective population-based study in Finnish subjects.

              The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in diabetic subjects without prior evidence of CHD is equal to that in nondiabetic subjects with prior myocardial infarction or any prior evidence of CHD. During an 18-year follow-up total, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CHD deaths were registered in a Finnish population-based study of 1,373 nondiabetic and 1,059 diabetic subjects. Adjusted multivariate Cox hazard models indicated that diabetic subjects without prior myocardial infarction, compared with nondiabetic subjects with prior myocardial infarction, had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.5) for the risk of CHD death. The corresponding HR was 0.9 (0.5-1.4) in men and 1.9 (0.6 -6.1) in women. Diabetic subjects without any prior evidence of CHD (myocardial infarction or ischemic electrocardiogram [ECG] changes or angina pectoris), compared with nondiabetic subjects with prior evidence of CHD, had an HR of 1.9 (1.4-2.6) for CHD death (men 1.5 [1.0-2.2]; women 3.5 [1.8-6.8]). The results for CVD and total mortality were quite similar to those for CHD mortality. Diabetes without prior myocardial infarction and prior myocardial infarction without diabetes indicate similar risk for CHD death in men and women. However, diabetes without any prior evidence of CHD (myocardial infarction or angina pectoris or ischemic ECG changes) indicates a higher risk than prior evidence of CHD in nondiabetic subjects, especially in women.

                Author and article information

                +977 9847111258 , drpokharel09@gmail.com
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Research Notes
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 April 2017
                4 April 2017
                : 10
                [1 ]GRID grid.416380.8, Department of Biochemistry, , Manipal College of Medical Sciences, ; Deep Height, Pokhara-16, Kaski, Nepal
                [2 ]GRID grid.444743.4, Department of Laboratory, , School of Health and Allied Sciences, Pokhara University, ; Dhungepatan, Lekhnath, Kaski Nepal
                [3 ]GRID grid.436533.4, Assessment and Evaluation Division, , Northern Ontario School of Medicine, ; 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6 Canada
                [4 ]GRID grid.416380.8, Department of Internal Medicine, , Manipal College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, ; Phulbari, Pokhara, Kaski Nepal
                [5 ]Shikhar Biotech Pvt Ltd, Khumaltar, Lalitpur Nepal
                [6 ]GRID grid.266102.1, Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, , University of California San Francisco, ; San Francisco, CA 94017 USA
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, prevalence, pokhara, nepal


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