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      New records of Leptopilina, Ganaspis, and Asobara species associated with Drosophila suzukii in North America, including detections of L. japonica and G. brasiliensis

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          Abstract

          We report the presence of two Asian species of larval parasitoids of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in northwestern North America. Leptopilina japonica Novkovic & Kimura and Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) were found foraging near and emerging from fruits infested by D. suzukii at several locations across coastal British Columbia, Canada in the summer and fall of 2019. While G. brasiliensis was found in British Columbia for the first time in 2019, re-inspection of previously collected specimens suggests that L. japonica has been present since at least 2016. Additionally, we found a species of Asobara associated with D. suzukii in British Columbia that is possibly Asobara rufescens (Förster) (known only from the Palearctic Region) based on COI DNA barcode data. These findings add to the list of cases documenting adventive establishment of candidate classical biological control agents outside of their native ranges. The findings also illustrate the need for revisiting species concepts within Asobara, as well as host and geographic distribution data due to cryptic and/or misidentified species.

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          Invasion biology of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): a global perspective and future priorities

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            In Focus: Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, across perspectives.

            In August 2008, the first detection of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, to the North America mainland in California caused great concern, as the fly was found infesting a variety of commercial fruits. Subsequent detections followed in Oregon, Washington, Florida and British Columbia in 2009; in Utah, North Carolina, South Carolina, Michigan, and Louisiana in 2010; and in Virginia, Montana, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Mexico in 2011. In Europe, it has been detected in Italy and Spain in 2009 and in France in 2010. Economic costs to the grower from D. suzukii include the increased cost of production (increased labor and materials for chemical inputs, monitoring and other management tools) and crop loss. An effective response to the invasion of D. suzukii requires proper taxonomic identification at the initial phase, understanding basic biology and phenology, developing management tools, transferring information and technology quickly to user groups, and evaluating the impact of the research and extension program on an economic, social, and environmental level. As D. suzukii continues to expand its range, steps must be initiated in each new region to educate and inform the public as well as formulate management tactics suitable for the crops and growing conditions in each. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
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              Non-crop plants used as hosts by Drosophila suzukii in Europe

              The invasive spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii, a fruit fly of Asian origin, is a major pest of a wide variety of berry and stone fruits in Europe. One of the characteristics of this fly is its wide host range. A better knowledge of its host range outside cultivated areas is essential to develop sustainable integrated pest management strategies. Field surveys were carried out during two years in Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Fruits of 165 potential host plant species were collected, including mostly wild and ornamental plants. Over 24,000 D. suzukii adults emerged from 84 plant species belonging to 19 families, 38 of which being non-native. Forty-two plants were reported for the first time as hosts of D. suzukii. The highest infestations were found in fruits of the genera Cornus, Prunus, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium as well as in Ficus carica, Frangula alnus, Phytolacca americana and Taxus baccata. Based on these data, management methods are suggested. Ornamental and hedge plants in the vicinity of fruit crops and orchards can be selected according to their susceptibility to D. suzukii. However, the widespread availability and abundance of non-crop hosts and the lack of efficient native parasitoids suggest the need for an area-wide control approach.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                August 31 2020
                August 31 2020
                : 78
                : 1-17
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.78.55026
                © 2020

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