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An Obligatory Role of NF-κB in Mediating Bone Marrow Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cell Recruitment and Proliferation Following Endotoxemic Multiple Organ Injury in Mice

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      Recruitment of bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMDEPCs) alleviates multiple organ injury (MOI) and improves outcomes. However, mechanisms mediating BMDEPC recruitment following septic MOI remain largely unknown. This study characterized the kinetics of BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation and defined the role of NF-κB in regulating BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation.

      Methods and Main Findings

      Chimeric mice with an intact or disrupted NF-κB p50 gene and BMDEPC-restricted expression of green fluorescent protein were created and injected with LPS (2 mg/kg, i.p.). BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation in multiple organs were quantified. BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation are highly organ-dependent. Lungs had the highest number of BMDEPC recruitment, whereas heart, liver and kidney had only a small fraction of the number of BMDEPCs in lungs. Number of proliferating BMDEPCs was several-fold higher in lungs than in other 3 organs. Kinetically, BMDEPC recruitment into different organs showed different time course profiles. NF-κB plays obligatory roles in mediating BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation. Universal deletion of NF-κB p50 gene inhibited LPS-induced BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation by 95% and 69% in heart. However, the contribution of NF-κB to these regulations varies significantly between organs. In liver, universal p50 gene deletion reduced LPS-induced BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation only by 49% and 35%. NF-κB activities in different tissue compartments play distinct roles. Selective p50 gene deletion either in stromal/parenchymal cells or in BM/blood cells inhibited BMDEPC recruitment by a similar extent. However, selective p50 gene deletion in BM/blood cells inhibited, but in stromal/parenchymal cells augmented BMDEPC proliferation.


      BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation display different kinetics in different organs following endotoxemic MOI. NF-κB plays obligatory and organ-dependent roles in regulating BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation. NF-κB activities in different tissue compartments play distinct roles in regulating BMDEPC proliferation.

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      Most cited references 10

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      Endothelial progenitor cell derived microvesicles activate an angiogenic program in endothelial cells by a horizontal transfer of mRNA.

      Membrane-derived microvesicles (MVs) are released from the cell surface and are implicated in cell-to-cell communication. We evaluated whether MVs derived from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are able to trigger angiogenesis. We found that EPC-derived MVs were incorporated in endothelial cells by interaction with alpha4 and beta1 integrins expressed on the MV surface. In vitro, MVs promoted endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and organization in capillary-like structures. In vivo, in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, MV-stimulated human endothelial cells organized in patent vessels. When incubated with RNase, despite their internalization into endothelial cells, MVs failed to induce in vitro and in vivo angiogenic effects. mRNA transfer was shown by transduction of GFP protein in endothelial cells by MVs containing GFP-mRNA and the biologic relevance by the angiogenic effect of MV-mRNA extract delivered by lipofectamine. Microarray ana-lysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of MV-mRNA extract indicated that MVs were shuttling a specific subset of cellular mRNA, such as mRNA associated with the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Protein expression and functional studies showed that PI3K and eNOS play a critical role in the angiogenic effect of MVs. These results suggest that EPCs may activate angiogenesis in endothelial cells by releasing MVs able to trigger an angiogenic program.
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        Intrapulmonary delivery of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves survival and attenuates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in mice.

        Recent in vivo and in vitro work suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we tested the effect of administering MSC directly into the airspaces of the lung 4 h after the intrapulmonary administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (5 mg/kg). MSC increased survival compared with PBS-treated control mice at 48 h (80 vs 42%; p < 0.01). There was also a significant decrease in excess lung water, a measure of pulmonary edema (145 +/- 50 vs 87 +/- 20 microl; p < 0.01), and bronchoalveolar lavage protein, a measure of endothelial and alveolar epithelial permeability (3.1 +/- 0.4 vs 2.2 +/- 0.8 mg/ml; p < 0.01), in the MSC-treated mice. These protective effects were not replicated by the use of further controls including fibroblasts and apoptotic MSC. The beneficial effect of MSC was independent of the ability of the cells to engraft in the lung and was not related to clearance of the endotoxin by the MSC. MSC administration mediated a down-regulation of proinflammatory responses to endotoxin (reducing TNF-alpha and MIP-2 in the bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma) while increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In vitro coculture studies of MSC with alveolar macrophages provided evidence that the anti-inflammatory effect was paracrine and was not cell contact dependent. In conclusion, treatment with intrapulmonary MSC markedly decreases the severity of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury and improves survival in mice.
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          Antibacterial effect of human mesenchymal stem cells is mediated in part from secretion of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37.

          Recent in vivo studies indicate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may have beneficial effects in the treatment of sepsis induced by bacterial infection. Administration of MSCs in these studies improved survival and enhanced bacterial clearance. The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that human MSCs possessed intrinsic antimicrobial properties. We studied the effect of human MSCs derived from bone marrow on the bacterial growth of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. MSCs as well as their conditioned medium (CM) demonstrated marked inhibition of bacterial growth in comparison with control medium or normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF). Analysis of expression of major antimicrobial peptides indicated that one of the factors responsible for the antimicrobial activity of MSC CM against Gram-negative bacteria was the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, hCAP-18/LL-37. Both m-RNA and protein expression data showed that the expression of LL-37 in MSCs increased after bacterial challenge. Using an in vivo mouse model of E. coli pneumonia, intratracheal administration of MSCs reduced bacterial growth (in colony-forming unit) in the lung homogenates and in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and administration of MSCs simultaneously with a neutralizing antibody to LL-37 resulted in a decrease in bacterial clearance. In addition, the BAL itself from MSC-treated mice had a greater antimicrobial activity in comparison with the BAL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-treated mice. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs possess direct antimicrobial activity, which is mediated in part by the secretion of human cathelicidin hCAP-18/ LL-37.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Centers for Heart and Lung Research and Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, United States of America
            [2 ]Institute of Hypoxia Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China
            University of Kentucky, United States of America
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: SL. Performed the experiments: SZM XY GL DS. Analyzed the data: SZM SL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SZM XY GL DS SL. Wrote the paper: SL.

            Role: Editor
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            21 October 2014
            : 9
            : 10
            25333282 4205081 PONE-D-14-33570 10.1371/journal.pone.0111087

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Pages: 10
            This work was supported by American Heart Association, grant number 12GRNT1214002 (to S.L.),, and National Nature Science Foundation of China, grant number 81370171 (to S.L.), The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Research Article
            Biology and life sciences
            Biological Tissue
            Epithelial Cells
            Endothelial Cells
            DNA-binding proteins
            Transcription Factors
            Cell Biology
            Cellular Types
            Animal Cells
            Stem Cells
            Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells
            Gene Expression
            Gene Regulation
            Immune Response
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
            Signs and Symptoms
            Severe Sepsis
            Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
            Custom metadata
            The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.



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