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      Dissecting Stages of Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Conversion during Kidney Development

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          Abstract

          During embryonic development, the structures of the nephron from the glomerulus to distal tubule derive from the metanephric mesenchyme. The mesenchymal cells change their cell type and produce highly organized epithelia under the influence of signals from the ureteric bud. The morphological sequence of this conversion includes the formation of a corona of mesenchymal cells surrounding the tips of the ureteric bud, followed by the development of a pre-tubular aggregate, which evolves into preliminary forms of the segmented nephron. Currently, these stages are largely based on histomorphologic criteria and expression of marker molecules. However, to dissect the effects of inductive signals from the ureteric bud in more detail, a sophisticated readout of stages in the conversion process is required, based on the onset of epithelial polarity and the occurrence of vectorial transport. In this review, we discuss some of the new approaches in establishing the staging of the conversion process.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Significance analysis of time course microarray experiments.

          Characterizing the genome-wide dynamic regulation of gene expression is important and will be of much interest in the future. However, there is currently no established method for identifying differentially expressed genes in a time course study. Here we propose a significance method for analyzing time course microarray studies that can be applied to the typical types of comparisons and sampling schemes. This method is applied to two studies on humans. In one study, genes are identified that show differential expression over time in response to in vivo endotoxin administration. By using our method, 7,409 genes are called significant at a 1% false-discovery rate level, whereas several existing approaches fail to identify any genes. In another study, 417 genes are identified at a 10% false-discovery rate level that show expression changing with age in the kidney cortex. Here it is also shown that as many as 47% of the genes change with age in a manner more complex than simple exponential growth or decay. The methodology proposed here has been implemented in the freely distributed and open-source edge software package.
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            Epithelial transformation of metanephric mesenchyme in the developing kidney regulated by Wnt-4.

            The kidney has been widely exploited as a model system for the study of tissue inductions regulating vertebrate organogenesis. Kidney development is initiated by the ingrowth of the Wolfian duct-derived ureteric bud into the presumptive kidney mesenchyme. In response to a signal from the ureter, mesenchymal cells condense, aggregate into pretubular clusters and undergo an epithelial conversion generating a simple tubule. This then undergoes morphogenesis and is transformed into the excretory system of the kidney, the nephron. We report here that the expression of Wnt-4, which encodes a secreted glycoprotein, correlates with, and is required for, kidney tubulogenesis. Mice lacking Wnt-4 activity fail to form pretubular cell aggregates; however, other aspects of mesenchymal and ureteric development are unaffected. Thus, Wnt-4 appears to act as an autoinducer of the mesenchyme to epithelial transition that underlies nephron development.
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              Wnt9b plays a central role in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transitions underlying organogenesis of the mammalian urogenital system.

              The vertebrate urogenital system forms due to inductive interactions between the Wolffian duct, its derivative the ureteric bud, and their adjacent mesenchymes. These establish epithelial primordia within the mesonephric (embryonic) and metanephric (adult) kidneys and the Müllerian duct, the anlage of much of the female reproductive tract. We show that Wnt9b is expressed in the inductive epithelia and is essential for the development of mesonephric and metanephric tubules and caudal extension of the Müllerian duct. Wnt9b is required for the earliest inductive response in metanephric mesenchyme. Further, Wnt9b-expressing cells can functionally substitute for the ureteric bud in these interactions. Wnt9b acts upstream of another Wnt, Wnt4, in this process, and our data implicate canonical Wnt signaling as one of the major pathways in the organization of the mammalian urogenital system. Together these findings suggest that Wnt9b is a common organizing signal regulating diverse components of the mammalian urogenital system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2006
                August 2006
                14 August 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : p56-p60
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, N.Y., USA
                Article
                93287 Nephron Physiol 2006;104:p56–p60
                10.1159/000093287
                16733371
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 15, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93287
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