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      Oral administration of red ginseng powder fermented with probiotic alleviates the severity of dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in a mouse model

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          Abstract

          Red ginseng is a well-known alternative medicine with anti-inflammatory activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of red ginseng likely vary among individuals. In order to produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we prepared probiotic-fermented red ginseng and evaluated its activity using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice. Initial analysis of intestinal damage indicated that the administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng significantly decreased the severity of colitis, compared with the control and the activity was higher than that induced by oral administration of ginseng powder or probiotics only. Subsequent analysis of the levels of serum IL-6 and TNF- α, inflammatory biomarkers that are increased at the initiation stage of colitis, were significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups in comparison to the control group. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and mRNAs for inflammatory factors in colorectal tissues were also significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups. Collectively, oral administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng reduced the severity of colitis in a mouse model, suggesting that it can be used as a uniformly effective red ginseng product.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CJNM
          Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
          Elsevier
          1875-5364
          20 March 2017
          : 15
          : 3
          : 192-201
          Affiliations
          1Department of Molecular Biology and Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
          2Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
          3Department of Efficacy Research, Institute of Jinan Red Ginseng, Jinan 55442, Korea
          4Department of Mathematics, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
          5Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan 15355, Korea
          Author notes
          *Corresponding authors: JANG Hyonseok, E-mail: yongsuk@ 123456jbnu.ac.kr ; JANG Yong-Suk, omfs1109@ 123456korea.ac.kr

          The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

          Article
          S1875-5364(17)30035-3
          10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30035-3
          28411687
          Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
          Funding
          Funded by: Ministry of Knowledge Economy
          Award ID: MKE-R0002038
          This research was supported by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. MKE-R0002038). Dr. JANG Yong-Suk was supported by Research Fund of Chonbuk National University in 2015.

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