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Combined Analyses of Chloroplast DNA Haplotypes and Microsatellite Markers Reveal New Insights Into the Origin and Dissemination Route of Cultivated Pears Native to East Asia

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      Abstract

      Asian pear plays an important role in the world pear industry, accounting for over 70% of world total production volume. Commercial Asian pear production relies on four major pear cultivar groups, Japanese pear (JP), Chinese white pear (CWP), Chinese sand pear (CSP), and Ussurian pear (UP), but their origins remain controversial. We estimated the genetic diversity levels and structures in a large sample of existing local cultivars to investigate the origins of Asian pears using twenty-five genome-covering nuclear microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, nSSR) markers and two non-coding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions ( trnL- trnF and accD- psaI). High levels of genetic diversity were detected for both nSSRs ( H E = 0.744) and cpDNAs ( Hd = 0.792). The major variation was found within geographic populations of cultivated pear groups, demonstrating a close relationship among cultivar groups. CSPs showed a greater genetic diversity than CWPs and JPs, and lowest levels of genetic differentiation were detected among them. Phylogeographical analyses indicated that the CSP, CWP, and JP were derived from the same progenitor of Pyrus pyrifolia in China. A dissemination route of cultivated P. pyrifolia estimated by approximate Bayesian computation suggested that cultivated P. pyrifolia from the Middle Yangtze River Valley area contributed the major genetic resources to the cultivars, excluding those of southwestern China. Three major genetic groups of cultivated Pyrus pyrifolia were revealed using nSSRs and a Bayesian statistical inference: (a) JPs; (b) cultivars from South-Central China northward to northeastern China, covering the main pear production area in China; (c) cultivars from southwestern China to southeastern China, including Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian Provinces. This reflected the synergistic effects of ecogeographical factors and human selection during cultivar spread and improvement. The analyses indicated that UP cultivars might be originated from the interspecific hybridization of wild Pyrus ussuriensis with cultivated Pyrus pyrifolia. The combination of uniparental DNA sequences and nuclear markers give us a better understanding of origins and genetic relationships for Asian pear groups and will be beneficial for the future improvement of Asian pear cultivars.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, China
            2The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture of China , Hangzhou, China
            3Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Integrative Biology of Horticultural Plants , Hangzhou, China
            4College of Ecology, Lishui University , Lishui, China
            5College of Agriculture, Guizhou University , Guiyang, China
            6Research Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Xingcheng, China
            7Institute of Fruit and Tea, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Wuhan, China
            Author notes

            Edited by: Rosane Garcia Collevatti, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil

            Reviewed by: Rosana Vianello, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Brazil; Hovirag Lancioni, University of Perugia, Italy

            *Correspondence: Yuanwen Teng, ywteng@ 123456zju.edu.cn

            These authors have contributed equally to this work.

            This article was submitted to Evolutionary and Population Genetics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Plant Sci
            Front Plant Sci
            Front. Plant Sci.
            Frontiers in Plant Science
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-462X
            07 May 2018
            2018
            : 9
            5949605 10.3389/fpls.2018.00591
            Copyright © 2018 Yue, Zheng, Zong, Jiang, Hu, Yu, Liu, Cao, Hu and Teng.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 77, Pages: 16, Words: 0
            Funding
            Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
            Award ID: 30871690
            Categories
            Plant Science
            Original Research

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