Serum LH and prolactin changes in response to an acute systemic L-dopa injection were measured in young (4–6 months) proestrous, estrous and 2nd day diestrous rats, and in aged (23–30 months) constant estrous and pseudopregnant (long diestrous) Long-Evans rats. Serum LH and prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassays in serial blood samples taken before and 15, 60 and 120 min after i.p. injections of 0, 3 or 30 mg of L-dopa. Pretreatment serum prolactin levels were elevated in afternoon samples from young proestrous and estrous rats and in both aged groups. Both the 3- and 30-mg injections caused a reduction in serum prolactin in all groups. The reduction in serum prolactin following 3 mg of L-dopa was less in both the aged groups than in the young rats. The pretreatment serum LH concentration was markedly elevated only on the afternoon of proestrus. The pretreatment serum LH level of the aged constant estrous group was greater than that of either the young estrous or diestrous group. Pretreatment serum LH levels were lower in aged pseudopregnant rats than in young diestrous rats. After the 30-mg L-dopa injection serum LH increased in all groups except the aged pseudopregnant group. Although the increase in LH following L-dopa injection was similar in young estrous and aged constant estrous rats, the increase in serum LH occurred later and lasted longer in the latter group. These data indicate that the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary endocrine control mechanisms are less responsive to acute L-dopa treatment in the aging female rat.