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      Activation of Arcuate Nucleus Neurons by Systemic Administration of Leptin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide-6 in Normal and Fasted Rats

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          Abstract

          Both leptin and growth hormone secretagogues are believed to have stimulatory effects on the hypothalamic growth hormone pulse generator, though whether these are achieved through the same pathway is unknown. Systemic administration of a normally maximal effective dose of the growth hormone secretagogue GHRP-6 to male rats causes the induction of c-Fos protein in the ventromedial aspect of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The effect of the same dose of GHRP-6 is, however, much greater in animals that have been fasted for 48 h, suggesting that in the food-replete rat, arcuate neurons either show reduced sensitivity to endogenous growth hormone secretagogues or they are under the tonic inhibitory influences of other factors. The major populations of arcuate neurons activated by GHRP-6 have been shown to contain neuropeptide Y or growth hormone-releasing factor, while leptin is thought to be inhibitory to neuropeptide Y neurons. Leptin did not alter the response of the rats to GHRP-6. However, it was able by itself to induce c-Fos protein immunoreactivity in the ventral, including the ventrolateral, arcuate nucleus of fasted rats. This is a clear demonstration of the acute activation of arcuate neurons in the rat following systemic leptin injection and suggests that GHRP-6 and leptin act on the growth hormone axis via different pathways.

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          Most cited references 13

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          The role of neuropeptide Y in the antiobesity action of the obese gene product.

          Recently Zhang et al. cloned a gene that is expressed only in adipose tissue of the mouse. The obese phenotype of the ob/ob mouse is linked to a mutation in the obese gene that results in expression of a truncated inactive protein. Human and rat homologues for this gene are known. Previous experiments predict such a hormone to have a hypothalamic target. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y stimulates food intake, decreases thermogenesis, and increases plasma insulin and corticosterone levels making it a potential target. Here we express the obese protein in Escherichia coli and find that it suppresses food intake and decreases body weight dramatically when administered to normal and ob/ob mice but not db/db (diabetic) mice, which are thought to lack the appropriate receptor. High-affinity binding was detected in the rat hypothalamus. One mechanism by which this protein regulated food intake and metabolism was inhibition of neuropeptide-Y synthesis and release.
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            Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin.

             N Vrang,  L Thim,  U Ribel (1998)
            The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y. Food-deprived animals show a pronounced decrease in expression of CART messenger RNA in the arcuate nucleus. In animal models of obesity with disrupted leptin signalling, CART mRNA is almost absent from the arcuate nucleus. Peripheral administration of leptin to obese mice stimulates CART mRNA expression. When injected intracerebroventricularly into rats, recombinant CART peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding, and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y. An antiserum against CART increases feeding in normal rats, indicating that CART may be an endogenous inhibitor of food intake in normal animals.
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              Design and synthesis of multi-haem proteins.

              A water-soluble, 62-residue, di-alpha-helical peptide has been synthesized which accommodates two bis-histidyl haem groups. The peptide assembles into a four-helix dimer with 2-fold symmetry and four parallel haems that closely resemble native haems in their spectral and electrochemical properties, including haem-haem redox interaction. This protein is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of molecular 'maquettes', a novel class of simplified versions of the metalloproteins involved in redox catalysis and in energy conversion in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1999
                August 1999
                16 August 1999
                : 70
                : 2
                : 93-100
                Affiliations
                aSchool of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, and bDepartment of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
                Article
                54463 Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:93–100
                10.1159/000054463
                10461023
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 53, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Growth Hormone Secretagogues

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