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      Dingchuan tang essential oil inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators via suppressing the IRAK/NF-κB, IRAK/AP-1, and TBK1/IRF3 pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells

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          Abstract

          Background

          Dingchuan tang (asthma-relieving decoction), a formula of nine herbs, has been used for treating respiratory inflammatory diseases for >400 years in the People’s Republic of China. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory action of dingchuan tang is not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the effects of Dingchuan tang essential oil (DCEO) on inflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanism of action.

          Materials and methods

          DCEO was extracted by steam distillation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were used as the cell model. Production of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the Griess test. Protein secretion and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. Protein levels were examined by Western blot. Nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was detected using immunofluorescence analyses.

          Results

          DCEO significantly reduced LPS-triggered production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and decreased protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). LPS induced upregulation of protein and mRNA levels of cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]), and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 5 [CCL-5], and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α) were suppressed by DCEO treatment. Phosphorylation and nuclear protein levels of transcription factors (activator protein-1 [AP-1], NF-κB, interferon regulatory factor 3 [IRF3]) were decreased by DCEO. Protein levels of phosphorylated IκB-α, IκB kinase α/β (IKKα/β), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), TGF β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were lowered by DCEO. Moreover, degradation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and IRAK4 induced by LPS was inhibited by DCEO treatment.

          Conclusion

          Suppression of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)/NF-κB, IRAK/AP-1 and TBK1/IRF3 pathways was associated with the inhibitory effects of DCEO on inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. This study provides a pharmacological justification for the use of dingchuan tang in managing inflammatory disorders.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation.

          Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that has crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of NF-kappaB mainly occurs via IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitory molecules, including IkappaBalpha. Optimal induction of NF-kappaB target genes also requires phosphorylation of NF-kappaB proteins, such as p65, within their transactivation domain by a variety of kinases in response to distinct stimuli. Whether, and how, phosphorylation modulates the function of other NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 3, remains unclear. The identification and characterization of all the kinases known to phosphorylate NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins are described here. Because deregulation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB phosphorylations is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer, newly designed drugs targeting these constitutively activated signalling pathways represent promising therapeutic tools.
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            This review focuses on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its regulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. NO is an important biological mediator in the living organism that is synthesized from L-arginine using NADPH and molecular oxygen. However, the overproduction of NO which is catalyzed by iNOS, a soluble enzyme and active in its dimeric form, is cytotoxic. Immunostimulating cytokines or bacterial pathogens activate iNOS and generate high concentrations of NO through the activation of inducible nuclear factors, including NFkB. iNOS activation is regulated mainly at the transcriptional level, but also at posttranscriptional, translational and postranslational levels through effects on protein stability, dimerization, phosphorylation, cofactor binding and availability of oxygen and L-arginine as substrates. The prevention of the overproduction of NO in the living organism through control of regulatory pathways may assist in the treatment of high NO-mediated disorders without changing physiological levels of NO. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
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              The cytokine network in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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              Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are very common inflammatory diseases of the airways. They both cause airway narrowing and are increasing in incidence throughout the world, imposing enormous burdens on health care. Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating the chronic inflammation and structural changes of the respiratory tract in both asthma and COPD and have become important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies in these diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                04 September 2018
                : 12
                : 2731-2748
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centre for Cancer and Inflammation Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, zlyu@ 123456hkbu.edu.hk
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Research and Development Centre for Natural Health Products, HKBU Shenzhen Research Institute and Continuing Education, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China, zlyu@ 123456hkbu.edu.hk
                [4 ]Consun Chinese Medicines Research Centre for Renal Diseases, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China, zlyu@ 123456hkbu.edu.hk
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhi-Ling Yu, Centre for Cancer and Inflammation Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, 7 Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Tel +852 3411 2465, Fax +852 3411 2461, Email zlyu@ 123456hkbu.edu.hk
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-12-2731
                10.2147/DDDT.S160645
                6129014
                © 2018 Zhang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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