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      Comorbidity of Depression and Anxiety: Association with Poor Quality of Life in Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Patients

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          Diabetes is associates with depression and impairment in Quality of Life (QoL).


          The objective is to define the frequencies of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a sample of patients diagnosed with type 1 and 2 diabetes, the amount of impairment of QoL and the weight of depression and anxiety in determining the QoL in such of patients.


          A total of 210 patients were divided into two groups (type 1 and type 2). Patients completed the HADS and WHOQoL-bref.


          Groups showed a high prevalence of anxiety (type 1 = 60%, type 2 = 43.8%) and depression (type 1 = 52.4%, type 2 = 38.1%), both measures were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in diabetes type 1 patients. Type 1 patients also showed a QoL in the overall assessment and the physical, psychological and social relations domains. In both Type 1 and 2 diabetes poor QoL was found associated by anxiety and depression comorbidity.


          In overall diabetes patients depression and anxiety seems to be a determinant of poor QoL.

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          Most cited references 30

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          A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
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            The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10.

            The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) is a short structured diagnostic interview, developed jointly by psychiatrists and clinicians in the United States and Europe, for DSM-IV and ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. With an administration time of approximately 15 minutes, it was designed to meet the need for a short but accurate structured psychiatric interview for multicenter clinical trials and epidemiology studies and to be used as a first step in outcome tracking in nonresearch clinical settings. The authors describe the development of the M.I.N.I. and its family of interviews: the M.I.N.I.-Screen, the M.I.N.I.-Plus, and the M.I.N.I.-Kid. They report on validation of the M.I.N.I. in relation to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Version, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and expert professional opinion, and they comment on potential applications for this interview.
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              The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization.

              This paper describes the World Health Organization's project to develop a quality of life instrument (the WHOQOL). It outlines the reasons that the project was undertaken, the thinking that underlies the project, the method that has been followed in its development and the current status of the project. The WHOQOL assesses individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. It has been developed collaboratively in several culturally diverse centres over four years. Piloting of the WHOQOL on some 4500 respondents in 15 cultural settings has been completed. On the basis of this data the revised WHOQOL Field Trial Form has been finalized, and field testing is currently in progress. The WHOQOL produces a multi-dimensional profile of scores across six domains and 24 sub-domains of quality of life.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Laboratory of Panic and Respiration –Institute of Psychiatry of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro – Brazil, National Institute of Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), Brazil
                [2 ]Institute of Phylosophy, Federal University of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais – Brazil
                [3 ]Quiropraxia Program of Faculty of Medical Sciences, Central University (UCEN), Santiago, Chile
                [4 ]Salgado de Oliveira University, Niterói, Brazil
                [5 ]Department of Public Health and Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Cagliari, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Panic and Respiration Laboratory – Institute of Psychiatry of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), Brazil; E-mail: acornelas@
                Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health
                Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health
                Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health : CP & EMH
                Bentham Open
                12 July 2013
                : 9
                : 136-141
                © Maia et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.



                anxiety, depression, quality of life, type 1 and type 2 diabetes.


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