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      A preliminary survey of Trichinella spp. in pigs raised under controlled housing conditions in Colombia: 2014–2016 Translated title: Enquête préliminaire sur Trichinella spp. chez les porcs élevés en condition de stabulation contrôlée en Colombie entre 2014 et 2016

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          A preliminary survey of Trichinella spp. infection was conducted in Colombian swine herds between 2014 and 2016. A total of 1,773 pigs reared on farms under controlled housing conditions and processed in 34 slaughterhouses were tested either by the artificial digestion of pooled muscle samples (n = 1,173) or by serology (n = 600). In addition, 550 rats trapped on 29 swine farm premises were also tested by artificial digestion. No positive pig samples were detected. Similarly, no Trichinella spp. muscle larvae were detected in rats. These results are in agreement with the lack of historical Trichinella infection reports in domestic and wild animals and humans in Colombia. However, a more extensive epidemiological investigation and a continuous surveillance program are needed to continue declaring swine herds in Colombia free of Trichinella infection.

          Translated abstract

          Une enquête préliminaire sur les infections dues à Trichinella spp. a été conduite chez des troupeaux de porcs colombiens entre 2014 et 2016. Un total de 1773 porcs élevés dans des fermes en condition de stabulation contrôlée et traités dans 34 abattoirs ont été testés par la méthode de digestion artificielle d’échantillons collectifs de muscles (n = 1173) ou par sérologie (n = 600). De plus, 550 rats piégés dans les locaux de 29 fermes d’élevage de porcs ont été testés aussi par digestion artificielle. Aucun échantillon de porc ne s’est révélé positif. Également, aucune larve musculaire de Trichinella n’a été détectée chez les rats. Ces résultats sont en accord avec l’absence historique de déclarations d’infections de Trichinella chez les animaux domestiques et sauvages et chez l’homme en Colombie. Cependant, il est nécessaire de conduire une enquête épidémiologique plus étendue et un programme de surveillance ininterrompu pour pouvoir continuer à déclarer les porcs colombiens libres de l’infection par Trichinella.

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          Most cited references 13

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          New pieces of the Trichinella puzzle.

          Contrary to our understanding of just a few decades ago, the genus Trichinella now consists of a complex assemblage of no less than nine different species and three additional genotypes whose taxonomic status remains in flux. New data and methodologies have allowed advancements in detection and differentiation at the population level which in turn have demonstrably advanced epidemiological, immunological and genetic investigations. In like manner, molecular and genetic studies have permitted us to hypothesise biohistorical events leading to the worldwide dissemination of this genus, and to begin crystalising the evolution of Trichinella on a macro scale. The identification of species in countries and continents otherwise considered Trichinella-free has raised questions regarding host adaptation and associations, and advanced important findings on the biogeographical histories of its members. Using past reviews as a backdrop, we have ventured to present an up-to-date assessment of the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology of the genus Trichinella with additional insights on host species, survival strategies in nature and the shortcomings of our current understanding of the epidemiology of the genus. In addition, we have begun compiling information available to date on genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and population studies of consequence in the hope we can build on this in years to come. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Searching for Trichinella: not all pigs are created equal.

            Each year, millions of pigs worldwide are tested for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses with negative results. Yet, thousands of people acquire trichinellosis by consuming pork. So, where is the problem? Testing for Trichinella spp. is often performed on the 'wrong' animals; while the parasites are mainly circulating in backyard and free-ranging pigs, herds kept under controlled management conditions are the ones tested. Veterinary services should: (i) introduce a risk-based surveillance system for Trichinella by documenting the control of housing conditions and feedstuff sources, and (ii) introduce a capillary network of field laboratories for monitoring the parasites in free-ranging and backyard pigs. Investment of funds into the education of farmers, hunters, and consumers should be a priority for public health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and man.

              The use of serological tests to detect Trichinella infection in domestic and wild animals and in humans has not been standardised yet. This review provides an uniform set of recommendations for the development and use of serological tests to detect circulating antibodies in serum samples. The recommendations are based on the best scientific published information and on the unpublished data from laboratories with a great expertise in this field and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable methods and the evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                10 April 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                [1 ] CIBAV research group, Veterinary Medicine School, Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia, Carrera 75 No 65-87, Medellín Colombia
                [2 ] European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome Italy
                [3 ] Asociación Porkcolombia-FNP, Ceniporcino, Bogotá Colombia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: jenny.chaparro@ 123456udea.edu.co
                parasite170150 10.1051/parasite/2018023
                © J.J. Chaparro-Gutiérrez et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 5
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