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      A double-crosslinked nanocellulose-reinforced dexamethasone-loaded collagen hydrogel for corneal application and sustained anti-inflammatory activity

      , , , , , , ,
      Acta Biomaterialia
      Elsevier BV

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          Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 — Preliminary Report

          Abstract Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory failure and death. Methods In this controlled, open-label trial comparing a range of possible treatments in patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned patients to receive oral or intravenous dexamethasone (at a dose of 6 mg once daily) for up to 10 days or to receive usual care alone. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Here, we report the preliminary results of this comparison. Results A total of 2104 patients were assigned to receive dexamethasone and 4321 to receive usual care. Overall, 482 patients (22.9%) in the dexamethasone group and 1110 patients (25.7%) in the usual care group died within 28 days after randomization (age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.93; P<0.001). The proportional and absolute between-group differences in mortality varied considerably according to the level of respiratory support that the patients were receiving at the time of randomization. In the dexamethasone group, the incidence of death was lower than that in the usual care group among patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (29.3% vs. 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. 26.2%; rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94) but not among those who were receiving no respiratory support at randomization (17.8% vs. 14.0%; rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.55). Conclusions In patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research and others; RECOVERY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04381936; ISRCTN number, 50189673.)
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            Safety of UVA-riboflavin cross-linking of the cornea.

            To study potential damage to ocular tissue during corneal collagen cross-linking (X-linking) by means of the riboflavin/UVA (370 nm) approach. Comparison of the currently used technique with officially accepted guidelines regarding direct UV damage and the damage created by the induced free radicals (photochemical damage). The currently used UVA radiant exposure of 5.4 mJ/cm and the corresponding irradiance of 3 mW/cm2 is below the known damage thresholds of UVA for the corneal endothelium, lens, and retina. Regarding the photochemical damage caused by the free radicals, the damage thresholds for keratocytes and endothelial cells are 0.45 and 0.35 mW/cm, respectively. In a 400-microm-thick cornea saturated with riboflavin, the irradiance at the endothelial level was 0.18 mW/cm, which is a factor of 2 smaller than the damage threshold. After corneal X-linking, the stroma is depopulated of keratocytes approximately 300 microm deep. Repopulation of this area takes up to 6 months. As long as the cornea treated has a minimum thickness of 400 microm (as recommended), the corneal endothelium will not experience damage, nor will deeper structures such as lens and retina. The light source should provide a homogenous irradiance, avoiding hot spots.
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              Ocular drug delivery systems: An overview.

              The major challenge faced by today's pharmacologist and formulation scientist is ocular drug delivery. Topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration, especially for the treatment of anterior segment diseases. Delivery of drugs to the targeted ocular tissues is restricted by various precorneal, dynamic and static ocular barriers. Also, therapeutic drug levels are not maintained for longer duration in target tissues. In the past two decades, ocular drug delivery research acceleratedly advanced towards developing a novel, safe and patient compliant formulation and drug delivery devices/techniques, which may surpass these barriers and maintain drug levels in tissues. Anterior segment drug delivery advances are witnessed by modulation of conventional topical solutions with permeation and viscosity enhancers. Also, it includes development of conventional topical formulations such as suspensions, emulsions and ointments. Various nanoformulations have also been introduced for anterior segment ocular drug delivery. On the other hand, for posterior ocular delivery, research has been immensely focused towards development of drug releasing devices and nanoformulations for treating chronic vitreoretinal diseases. These novel devices and/or formulations may help to surpass ocular barriers and associated side effects with conventional topical drops. Also, these novel devices and/or formulations are easy to formulate, no/negligibly irritating, possess high precorneal residence time, sustain the drug release, and enhance ocular bioavailability of therapeutics. An update of current research advancement in ocular drug delivery necessitates and helps drug delivery scientists to modulate their think process and develop novel and safe drug delivery strategies. Current review intends to summarize the existing conventional formulations for ocular delivery and their advancements followed by current nanotechnology based formulation developments. Also, recent developments with other ocular drug delivery strategies employing in situ gels, implants, contact lens and microneedles have been discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Acta Biomaterialia
                Acta Biomaterialia
                Elsevier BV
                17427061
                December 2023
                December 2023
                : 172
                : 234-248
                Article
                10.1016/j.actbio.2023.10.020
                37866722
                72de4980-3e43-4826-9cad-0ddbd21fa5c6
                © 2023

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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