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      Complications, Urinary Continence, and Oncologic Outcomes of Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: Single-Surgeon Experience for the First 100 Cases

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          Abstract

          Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate initial learning curves of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) with regard to complications, urinary continence, and oncologic outcome. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. All 100 patients underwent LRP performed by the same urologist at one institution. Results: Mean operating time (208.4 ± 48.6 min), estimated blood loss (495.8 ± 436.5 mL), allogeneic blood transfusion rate (0%), and intraoperative complications diminished with surgical experience. Positive margin rate varied greatly among pathological stage (positive margin rates: pT2 = 20.5%; pT3 = 63.0%). A trend towards reduction of positive surgical margins in pT2 cases was apparent with increasing experience. Intraoperative and early complications occurred in 2.0% of patients. In all patients, 85.9% used none or no more than one pad per 24 h at 6 months postoperatively. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence was seen in only 2 patients. Conclusions. In the present series of 100 patients, our retrospective evaluation confirms that LRP provides satisfactory results.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Combination of prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage of localized prostate cancer. A multi-institutional update.

          To combine the clinical data from 3 academic institutions that serve as centers of excellence for the surgical treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer and develop a multi-institutional model combining serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage for men with clinically localized prostate cancer. In this update, we have combined clinical and pathological data for a group of 4133 men treated by several surgeons from 3 major academic urologic centers within the United States. Multinomial log-linear regression was performed for the simultaneous prediction of organ-confined disease, isolated capsular penetration, seminal vesicle involvement, or pelvic lymph node involvement. Bootstrap estimates of the predicted probabilities were used to develop nomograms to predict pathological stage. Additional bootstrap analyses were then obtained to validate the performance of the nomograms. A total of 4133 men who had undergone radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (n=3116), Baylor College of Medicine (n=782), and the University of Michigan School of Medicine (n=235) were enrolled into this study. None of the patients had received preoperative hormonal or radiation therapy. Simultaneous prediction of organ-confined disease, isolated capsular penetration, seminal vesicle involvement, or pelvic lymph node involvement using updated nomograms. Prostate-specific antigen level, TNM clinical stage, and Gleason score contributed significantly to the prediction of pathological stage (P<.001). Bootstrap estimates of the median and 95% confidence interval of the predicted probabilities are presented in the nomograms. For most cells in the nomograms, there is a greater than 25% probability of qualifying for more than one of the pathological stages. In the validation analyses, 72.4% of the time the nomograms correctly predicted the probability of a pathological stage to within 10% (organ-confined disease, 67.3%; isolated capsular penetration, 59.6%; seminal vesicle involvement, 79.6%; pelvic lymph node involvement, 82.9%). The data represent a multi-institutional modeling and validation of the clinical utility of combining PSA level measurement, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage for a group of men with localized prostate cancer. Clinicians can use these nomograms when counseling individual patients regarding the probability of their tumor being a specific pathological stage; this will enable patients and physicians to make more informed treatment decisions based on the probability of a pathological stage, as well as risk tolerance and the values they place on various potential outcomes.
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            Potency, continence and complications in 3,477 consecutive radical retropubic prostatectomies.

            We report results in a series of 3,477 consecutive patients treated with anatomical nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in terms of recovery of erectile function, urinary continence and postoperative complications. From May 1983 through February 2003, 1 surgeon (WJC) performed anatomical RRP using a unilateral or bilateral nerve sparing modification when possible. Urinary continence and recovery of erections were evaluated in men with a minimum followup of 18 months. Excluded from potency analysis were men who were not reliably potent before surgery, those who did not undergo a nerve sparing procedure and those who received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy or hormonal therapy within 18 months of surgery. Other postoperative complications in this patient population were also evaluated. Erections sufficient for intercourse occurred in 76% of preoperatively potent men treated with bilateral (1,770) and 53% of men treated with unilateral or partial nerve sparing (64) surgery. Adequate erectile function was more common following bilateral than unilateral nerve sparing surgery in men younger than 70 years old (78% versus 53%, p = 0.001) compared with those 70 years old or older (52% versus 56%, p = 0.6). Recovery of urinary continence occurred in 93% of all men and was associated with younger age (p = 0.001) but not nerve sparing surgery, tumor stage, prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason grade or number of prior prostatectomies performed by the surgeon. Postoperative complications occurred in 320 (9%) of patients and were associated with older age (p <0.0001), nonnerve sparing surgery (p = 0.001), PSA era (p <0.0001) and surgeon experience. Complications were not significantly correlated with clinical stage, pathological stage, preoperative PSA or Gleason grade. There was no perioperative mortality. Nerve sparing RRP can be performed with favorable potency and urinary continence. Better results are achieved in younger men. Other complications are reduced with increasing surgeon experience.
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              Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: the Montsouris technique.

              Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become standard at our institution based on experience with 260 consecutive cases operated on between January 1998 and December 1999. In view of the favorable short-term outcomes we describe our standardized laparoscopic radical prostatectomy technique. Two urologists trained in open retropubic radical prostatectomy and laparoscopy combined their experience to develop a specific technique of nonincisional radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Patients presented with clinical stages T1b to T2 prostate cancer and tumor size was approximately 18 to 130 gm. Operations were performed by 1 senior surgeon and 1 assistant, with the help of a voice controlled robot and with the patient under general anesthesia. The 2, 10 mm. ports and 3, 5 mm. ports were placed in the umbilicus and iliac fossa. The laparoscopic procedure was performed transperitoneally, combining anterograde and retrograde approaches in 7 standardized steps. Urethrovesical anastomosis was performed with 3-zero interrupted sutures tied intracorporeally. Technical details were compiled, summarized and illustrated with schematic views. Operating time was approximately 3 hours for the last 120 cases. Estimated average blood loss was 250 ml. with a transfusion rate of less than 1%. The conversion rate was 0%. Postoperative pain was minimal and analgesics were generally not required by postoperative day 2. The accuracy of dissection and sutures allowed patients to be discharged home without urethral catheterization starting on postoperative day 3. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is now not only feasible, but more importantly reproducible. Each step has been checked and validated, and the procedure is standardized and has definitively replaced the retropubic approach in our practice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Prostate Cancer
                PC
                Prostate Cancer
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-3111
                2090-312X
                2011
                14 July 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                1Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
                2Department of Urology, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Sakura 285-8741, Japan
                3Department of Urology, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Ichihara 299-0111, Japan
                4Department of Urology, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: J. W. Moul

                Article
                10.1155/2011/606505
                3200285
                22110991
                Copyright © 2011 Takashi Imamoto et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Clinical Study

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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