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      Diagnosis and characterization of canine distemper virus through sequencing by MinION nanopore technology

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          Abstract

          Prompt identification of the causative pathogen of an infectious disease is essential for the choice of treatment or preventive measures. In this perspective, nucleic acids purified from the brain tissue of a dog succumbed after severe neurological signs were processed with the MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies, Oxford UK) sequencing technology. Canine distemper virus (CDV) sequence reads were detected. Subsequently, a specific molecular test and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the presence of CDV RNA and antigen, respectively, in tissues. This study supports the use of the NGS in veterinary clinical practice with potential advantages in terms of rapidity and broad-range of molecular diagnosis.

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          Most cited references 45

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          MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

          MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.
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            MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees

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              jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

              jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                a.lorusso@izs.it
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                8 February 2019
                8 February 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Reference Center for Whole Genome Sequencing of microbial pathogens: database and bioinformatic analysis, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise, Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo, Italy
                [2 ]Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, strada provinciale per Casamassima Km 3, 70100 Valenzano, Bari Italy
                Article
                37497
                10.1038/s41598-018-37497-4
                6368598
                30737428
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: Italian Ministry of Health, MSRCTE06/17
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