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      Critical reflections on German Red Lists of endangered myriapod species (Chilopoda, Diplopoda) (with species list for Germany)

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      International Journal of Myriapodology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The Red Lists of endangered species published by the German Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN - the Federal Agency of Nature Conservation) are essential tools for the nature protection in Germany since the 1970s. Although many groups of insects appear in the German Red Lists, small and inconspicuous soil organisms, among them millipedes and centipedes, have in the past been ignored. In the last few years great efforts have been made to assess these two groups, resulting in Red Lists of German Myriapoda. However, difficulties were encountered in strictly applying the Red List classification criteria to myriapods. Here we discuss those problems and some sources of error. A species list of all German Diplopoda and Chilopoda including Red List status and frequency of occurrence is provided in an Appendix.

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          Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the fossil record.

          Monophyly of Arthropoda is emphatically supported from both morphological and molecular perspectives. Recent work finds Onychophora rather than Tardigrada to be the closest relatives of arthropods. The status of tardigrades as panarthropods (rather than cycloneuralians) is contentious from the perspective of phylogenomic data. A grade of Cambrian taxa in the arthropod stem group includes gilled lobopodians, dinocaridids (e.g., anomalocaridids), fuxianhuiids and canadaspidids that inform on character acquisition between Onychophora and the arthropod crown group. A sister group relationship between Crustacea (itself likely paraphyletic) and Hexapoda is retrieved by diverse kinds of molecular data and is well supported by neuroanatomy. This clade, Tetraconata, can be dated to the early Cambrian by crown group-type mandibles. The rival Atelocerata hypothesis (Myriapoda+Hexapoda) has no molecular support. The basal node in the arthropod crown group is embroiled in a controversy over whether myriapods unite with chelicerates (Paradoxopoda or Myriochelata) or with crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata). Both groups find some molecular and morphological support, though Mandibulata is presently the stronger morphological hypothesis. Either hypothesis forces an unsampled ghost lineage for Myriapoda from the Cambrian to the mid Silurian. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The geological record and phylogeny of the Myriapoda.

            We review issues of myriapod phylogeny, from the position of the Myriapoda amongst arthropods to the relationships of the orders of the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda. The fossil record of each myriapod class is reviewed, with an emphasis on developments since 1997. We accept as working hypotheses that Myriapoda is monophyletic and belongs in Mandibulata, that the classes of Myriapoda are monophyletic, and that they are related as (Chilopoda (Symphyla (Diplopoda+Pauropoda))). The most pressing challenges to these hypotheses are some molecular and developmental evidence for an alliance between myriapods and chelicerates, and the attraction of symphylans to pauropods in some molecular analyses. While the phylogeny of the orders of Chilopoda appears settled, the relationships within Diplopoda remain unclear at several levels. Chilopoda and Diplopoda have a relatively sparse representation as fossils, and Symphyla and Pauropoda fossils are known only from Tertiary ambers. Fossils are difficult to place in trees based on living forms because many morphological characters are not very likely to be preserved in the fossils; as a consequence, most diplopod fossils have been placed in extinct higher taxa. Nevertheless, important information from diplopod fossils includes the first documented occurrence of air-breathing, and the first evidence for the use of a chemical defense. Stem-group myriapods are unknown, but evidence suggests the group must have arisen in the Early Cambrian, with a major period of cladogenesis in the Late Ordovician and early Silurian. Large terrestrial myriapods were on land at least by mid-Silurian. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Assessment of biological soil quality in wooded reclaimed mine sites

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Myriapodology
                IJM
                Pensoft Publishers
                1875-2543
                1875-2535
                December 20 2011
                December 20 2011
                : 6
                : 85-105
                Article
                10.3897/ijm.6.2175
                © 2011
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