Background: A high incidence of proarrhythmia has been reported with ibutilide, especially in patients with underlying heart diseases. Our previous studies have shown that extracellular acidosis and hyperkalemia attenuate the HERG-inhibitory effect of proarrhythmic drugs, e.g. quinidine, but have little impact on the less-proarrhythmic drug amiodarone. We hypothesized that ibutilide would behave like quinidine in the presence of extracellular acidosis and hyperkalemia. Methods and Results: HERG was expressed on Xenopus oocytes, and the two-electrode voltage clamp technique was employed. Our results showed that ibutilide was a potent HERG inhibitor. When extracellular solution contained 5 m M KCl and pH was 7.4, the IC<sub>50</sub> of ibutilide was 0.9 ± 0.1 µ M. The inhibitory effect of ibutilide was attenuated when extracellular pH decreased to 6.2. There was a significant difference in current inhibition by ibutilide at pH 7.4 versus pH 6.2 (p < 0.01). When the extracellular potassium concentration was increased from 5 to 10 m M, ibutilide produced less current inhibition, and the IC<sub>50</sub> was increased to 2.0 ± 0.1 µ M. Conclusion: Extracellular acidosis and hyperkalemia attenuate the HERG-inhibitory effect of ibutilide. The differences in HERG inhibition between acidic and hyperkalemic regions compared to normal regions in the myocardium may result in heterogeneity in repolarization, which may contribute to the proarrhythmic toxicity of ibutilide.