Problematic use of social media (PUSM) may affect sleep quality and self-stigma in people with schizophrenia and consequently reduce their quality of life (QoL). This longitudinal study investigated if sleep quality and self-stigma mediated relationships between PUSM and QoL.
One-hundred-and-ninety-three outpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from a psychiatric center in Taiwan from April 2019 to August 2021 and participated in a longitudinal study at intervals of three months between measurements. QoL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire Brief Version; sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; self-stigma using the Self-Stigma Scale-Short; and PUSM using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. Via SPSS 20.0, general estimating equation models assessed temporal associations between variables. Via R software, mediating effects of self-stigma and sleep quality were examined through Monte Carlo simulations with 20,000 repetitions.
Mean scores of physical, psychological, social and environmental QoL ranged from 11.86 to 13.02. Mean scores of sleep quality and self-stigma were 9.1±4.5 and 2.2±0.8, respectively. Sleep quality and self-stigma were directly related to QoL (p<0.001) and mediated indirect relationships between PUSM and all components of QoL with a range of 95% confidence intervals spanning from -0.0591 to -0.0107 for physical QoL; -0.0564 to -0.0095 for psychological QoL; -0.0292 to -0.0035 for social QoL; and -0.0357 to -0.0052 for environmental QoL.